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Events of the Cold War

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  1. Events of the Cold War

  2. China becomes Communist • 1945 – Civil war broke out in China • Nationalists vs. Communists • Communists won – led by Mao Zedong • Communist reforms put in place • Land taken from wealthy and given to poor • Farms were collectivized (shared) • Industry and commerce nationalized (government owned) • Population grew

  3. Mao’s Economic Plans

  4. Deng Xiaoping seized power when Mao died and ended the Cultural Revolution • Put in place the Four Modernizations • Industry, Agriculture, Technology, National Defense • Studied abroad; brought in foreign investors • Plan increased standard of living and food production = overall a success • People wanted a Fifth Modernization = Democracy • Protested at Tiananmen Square against communism • Xiaoping sent the military in to stop protestors • 2000 people killed/wounded = Tiananmen Square massacre • China was considered a threatening nation and was cut off from the USA

  5. Korean War 1950-1953

  6. Beginning of the War • Korea was divided at the 38th parallel after WWII • North Korea was occupied by Soviet Union • America occupied South Korea • Division was supposed to be temporary, but ended up staying divided

  7. Alliances North Korea = Communist • Led by dictator Kim Il Sung • Supported by China and Soviet Union Mao Zedong Joseph Stalin

  8. South Korea = republic • Led by president Syngman Rhee Supported by US and the UN Truman Eisenhower United Nations

  9. When Did This Happen? 1945-49 Chinese Communist Revolution 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 1950-1953 Korean War 1954-1974 Vietnam War

  10. What Happened? • North Korea invaded South Korea and captured the capital, Seoul in 1950 • General MacArthur led the UN troops against North Korea • They kept fighting back and forth along the 38th parallel for 3 years

  11. NORTH KOREA SOUTH KOREA

  12. Result • Neither side won • Signed an armistice (cease fire) • Country still remains divided into North and South Korea, on the 38th parallel • Even though South Korea was a republic, it was not democratic – it was ran by dictators until 1998 • 1998 it became a democracy

  13. Vietnam War • After WWII, tried to regain control over Vietnam • Communists in N. Vietnam led by Ho Chi Minh fought back against France • France occupied S. Vietnam • France failed to reunite Vietnam, and left the country in 1954 • Vietnam remained split in half • North Vietnam = Communists • Led by Ho Chi Minh • Supported by Soviet Union and China • South Vietnam = anti-Communist • Led by Ngo Dinh Diem • Supported by the USA

  14. VIETNAM

  15. When Did This Happen? 1945-49 Chinese Communist Revolution 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 1950-1953 Korean War 1954-1975 Vietnam War

  16. Both sides agreed to hold elections to reunite Vietnam as one country • Elections were never held, country remained divided • 1954 - United States sent aid to S. Vietnam to help prevent takeover by the North • Viewed conflict in terms of the Domino Theory – idea if one country falls to communism, the rest will follow • US became involved in the war to contain communism • 1964 – President Johnson sent troops to Vietnam – we were officially at war

  17. END of Vietnam War • War ended in 1973 under Nixon • Stalemate for much of the war • US withdrew their troops from Vietnam • Two years later communists had defeated S. Vietnam • Vietnam was reunited as a communist country • 1975 – both Laos and Cambodia were also communist Did the USA achieve their goal of containing communism?

  18. Cuban missile crisis CUBA

  19. Bay of Pigs Invasion • 1959 – Fidel Castro became dictator of Cuba • 1960 – USA put a trade embargo on Cuba and broke all diplomatic ties • 1961 – Castro exiled (banished) those who opposed his rule • Came to the USA for help to overthrow Castro • US supported an invasion of Cuba by the exiles • Invasion failed • Exiles captured • Embarrassed JFK and his administration • Castro kept a watchful eye over the USA • Afraid of another US-backed invasion

  20. Cuban Missile Crisis • October 1962 – lasted 13 Days • USA took pictures of Soviet Union missiles being built in Cuba, pointing at the USA • JFK had to negotiate with Khrushchev to remove the missiles • Blockaded Cuba • Closest we ever came to nuclear war

  21. Ohio

  22. End of the cold war

  23. The Brezhnev Era • Brezhnev replaced Khrushchev in 1964 • Passed the Brezhnev Doctrine – USSR could intervene if communism was being threatened in another country • Agreed to a détente (relaxation of tensions) with the USA • Signed treaties limiting nuclear arms • Began trading goods with the USA

  24. afghanistan • 1979 – Soviets invaded Afghanistan to restore a pro-Soviet government • US saw this as a threat to expansion • Ended the détente • Pres. Carter cancelled our involvement in 1980 Olympics in Moscow • Carter also placed an embargo on US grain to Soviets • Reagan began military buildup and a new arms race • Reagan gave military aid to Afghan rebels

  25. Gorbachev and reform • 1985 - Gorbachev took over after Brezhnev • Reformed the political and economic structure of the USSR • Political changes: • Set up Soviet Parliament with elected members • Created a new state presidency • Economic changes: • Established a market economy (private ownership of businesses) • Improved the relationship with the USA • Slowed down arms race • Stopped giving military support to communist countries • Allowed many countries to overthrow their communist governments

  26. German Reunification • November 9, 1989 – Berlin Wall torn down • October 3, 1990 – East and West Germany reunited as one Germany

  27. END OF THE SOVIET UNION • Soviet Union was diverse: • 92 ethnic groups and 112 different languages • As Gorbachev moved toward reform, nationalist movements began • Soviet Union was breaking apart • December 1991 – Soviet Union was dissolved and the Cold War ended