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Chapter 28 Section 1

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  1. Chapter 28 Section 1 Axis Aggression

  2. Germany Expands 1933 Hitler came to power and promised to return Germany to greatness Hitler wanted to expand Germany and their neighbors were aware of the threat but were hesitant to go war again

  3. Germany Expands • Rebuilding the German Military • Hitler secretly began rebuilding German military and he openly started with his plan even though it went directly against Treaty Versailles but it went unchallenged • Britain allowed Germany to build subs and warships even though it was against the Treaty • Germany claimed that they were doing it to strength their resistances against the USSR spreading communism • He was really planning on building the army to expand the German Empire

  4. Germany Expands • Militarizing The Rhineland • In March of 1936 Hitler sent an army into the Rhineland- German territory that bordered France • Another violation of the Treaty of V • France and GB complained of the violations but did nothing about it • This made Hitler grow bolder

  5. Germany Expands • Annexing Austria • Hitler knew that his opponents wanted to avoid war • He wanted to unite all German speaking people and Austria was his first choice • The Nazi party had many supporters in Austria • Hitler told the Austrian gov’t that he wanted to Annex Austria • With many Austrians supporting Hitler the Austrian gov’t knew they had no choice • Germany marched into Austria without any resistance

  6. Germany Expands • A Growing Crisis • He knew that no one would stop him so he continued German’s expansion • He turned to Czechoslovakia many Germans lived in the region of Sudetenland and wanted to unite with Germany • Czech gov’t prepared for warn convinced that France would help if necessary • France and GB eager to stay out of war told the Czech gov’t that they would fight Germany alone • Chamberlain the Prime Minister of GB was praised by his people for this decision but the parliament member Winston Churchill openly opposed him but was ignored

  7. Alliances and Civil War • The Axis Forms • When Hitler was threatening Europe in the 30’s he was also building alliances and put him in the league with the world’s other main aggressors • Germany joined with Japan and Italy but they showed a willingness to use the military force to achieve their goals and did not care about other nations opinions • They formed they Axis Powers

  8. Alliances and Civil War • The Spanish Civil War • Italy and German tried to ally with Spain • Spain had an outbreak of civil war one side were the Nationalist, a fascist group and the Republicans who supported by the Soviet Union • Nationalist finally won and added to the nations under fascist control

  9. Alliances and Civil War • A Secret Deal with Stalin • In the late 1930’s Fascist Germany and Italy strongly opposed Communist Soviet Union • Fascism was based in extreme nationalism and loyalty to the state while communism sought international change and a classless society • GB and France discussed a possible alliance with the USSR but Stalin grew tried of waiting and thought that Germany would soon attack • Germany and the USSR signed an alliance called the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact was revealed in August 1939 in which they promised to not attack one another

  10. The War Begins • Lightning Attacks • September 1st 1939 Germany launched an attack on Poland and this attack started WWII • Germany used blitzkrieg it emphasized speed and close coordination between planes in the air and fast moving forces on the ground • Began with air attacks that damaged defenses and panic among civilians.. Then many tanks through the countryside and foot soldiers to take out the last defense. • Even though Poland had support from GB and France the attack from Germany ended within a week and they did not have enough time to respond • September 3rd France and GB declared war on Germany and created the Allied Powers • Before the attack on Poland German troops began organizing on the Western border to attack France

  11. The War Begins • The Attack on France • German attack on France began in the Spring of 1940 • First they captured Denmark and Norway Allied Forces tried to stop them but they were no match • At the same time German forces were marching on Southern France • French did not have a strong defense because they thought the Germans couldn’t break through the thick forest, however, The Germans used an army of tanks and easily took the land • Allied forces fled to the coast and many were able to be rescued by the Allies on the sea and escape to GB • German forces were able to move through France and once they reached Paris on June 22 1940 the French surrendered • Germany occupied much of France • Vichy was areas in France they were controlled by French officers that cooperated with Hitler • Charles De Gaulle a French political leader was able to escape to England and help organize resistance to German and Vichy control

  12. The War Begins • The Battle for Britain • Great Britain now stood alone against the Germans • Winston Churchill was now the Prime Minister of GB and had a very different stance then the last PM. He would fight and not surrender • August- October of 1940 The Battle of Britain took place • Germany sent air forces to attack British targets and weaken the British Royal Air Forces in hopes of being able to invade • However the Germans failed • British had new technology called radar. Uses radio signals to locate images of distant objects. They could detect the German planes earlier and prepare for their air defense • Hitler continued the attack called the London blitz and other cities and ports to terrorize civilians. In 1941 Hitler realized he would not succeed and abandoned his plans to invade Britian

  13. The War Begins • The Invasion of the Soviet Union • June 1941 Hitler broke his non aggression pact and sent three million German troops to invade the Soviet Union • German used ‘blitzkrieg’ as an effective tactic against the Soviets • Soviet army had millions of poorly trained, ill equipped soldiers. • By August the Germans had not reached their major objective, Leningrad and Moscow. • Furthermore they were ill prepared for the harsh Soviet winter. The winter brought their progress to a halt. • The large Soviet population allowed the army to quickly recover its losses. While the Germans could not recover from their losses. • The Soviets survived the mighty German slaughter

  14. Japan Attacks During the 1930’s the Japanese expanded and alarmed many observers to include the Americans. 1941 Japan moved it’s forces into French colonies to acquire oil, rubber and other natural resource to supply their military build up. In response America banned the sale of oil to Japan Japan and America were trying to come to a peace agreement, while Japan was secretly planning an attack.

  15. Japan Attacks • Pearl Harbor • For months Japanese General Hideki Tojo, had been planning a surprise attack on the Hawaiian Naval Air Base, Pearl Harbor • As the Sun rose on a beautiful Sunday morning, December 7th, 1941, the Japanese attacked. • For nearly two weeks, Japanese aircraft approached Perl Harbor undetected • When the attack started hundreds of Japanese fighter aircraft dropped bombs and torpedo across Pearl Harbor, sinking many ships and killing many unsuspecting soldiers and sailors. • Most American planes did not even have the chance to leave the ground • 2400 Americans died and 200 aircrafts were destroyed

  16. Japan Attacks • American Response • Before Pearl Harbor most Americans were isolationist when it came to getting involved in WWII • After Pearl Harbor many Americans wanted to enter the war • Om December 8th 1941 the US congress declared war on Japan • Three days later German and Italy declared war on the US • With that action the US joined the Axis Powers