Industrialization Takes Hold Chapter 1 Section 1
What does the United States look like in the 1860s (when we begin the class)? Slavery Is Over (ended in 1865) … but discrimination still existed The United States looks very different than it does today The United States is an agrarian society of farmers
Railroads Open the West A. Railroad construction in the West began at a furious pace during the Civil War. 1.) The most dramatic achievement was the completion of the first transcontinental railroad line in 1869. B. In the wake of the first transcontinental line, other railroads sprang up throughout the nation. 1.) Many of those who labored to build the railroads were immigrants from China or Ireland.
Completion of the trans continental railroad promontory summit, Utah; 1869
Railroads Open the West Route of transcontinental RR; 1869 States and Territories; 1860 C. Railroads helped to increase settlement in the West. 1.) They also played a major role in the extermination of buffalo and the elimination of the Native Americans.
Farming the Great Plains A. In 1862, Congress passed the Homestead Act in an attempt to encourage farmers to settle in the West. 1.) Under the act, the government granted 160 acres of land to families for just $10. 2.) The families, known as homesteaders, had to improve the land and live on it for five years. Then they could get full ownership. B. The plan did not work out as well as they had wanted. 1.) Fraud and corruption meant that speculators gained the land for profit, not people who wanted to live there. 2.) Additionally, the soil was difficult for farming.
Farming the Great Plains C. Eventually, farmers adapted to the harsh terrain and many of the inventions that spurred industrialization helped with agriculture. 1.) Inventions like deep wells, steel plows, barb wire, reapers, made it easier to plant and maintain crops.
Resources A. During the second half of the 1800s, farming thrived in some parts of the United States but most of the country changed from a nation of farmers to a modern, industrial nation B. The nation's natural resources played a key role in that transformation. 1.) The United States contained large amounts of coal, iron are, lead, and copper. 2.) These and other minerals were used for the building of railroads, bridges, skyscrapers, and machinery.
What do you need for industrialization to occur? (FACTORY) NATURAL RESOURCES
Resources C. Human resources also helped American industry to grow. 1.) Between 1860 and 1890, America's population more than doubled, increasing from 31 million to nearly 75 million. 2.) Contributing to this growth was the approximately 14 million immigrants who arrived between 1860 and 1900. D. The nation's population boom provided burgeoning industries with a much needed labor supply.
What do you need for industrialization to occur? WORKERS (FACTORY) NATURAL RESOURCES
Public Policies and Private Investment A. As industry grew, so did the wealth of a small number of entrepreneurs, or business leaders. These people took risks to start new businesses and developed new ways of doing business. B. Entrepreneurs created business empires in the oil, steel, and meatpacking industries. Most of these empires survived by eliminating competition-fairly or unfairly
What do you need for industrialization to occur? ENTREPRENEURS (WEALTH) WORKERS (FACTORY) NATURAL RESOURCES
Public Policies and Private Investment C. The U.S. government helped to spur the growth of industry by following a laissez-faire, or "hands-off," policy toward big business and industry.
What do you need for industrialization to occur? ENTREPRENEURS (WEALTH) WORKERS STABLE GOVERNMENT (FACTORY) NATURAL RESOURCES
Public Policies and Private Investment 1.) The government, along with many Americans, believed that allowing industry to grow freely would benefit everyone. 2.) As a result, Congress placed few restrictions or regulations on business. D. The money made in American industry also attracted private investors. 1.) Investors from both the United State and Europe provided the money that many industries needed to start their business.
What do you need for industrialization to occur? ENTREPRENEURS (WEALTH) WORKERS STABLE GOVERNMENT (FACTORY) TECHNOLOGY NATURAL RESOURCES
Science and Technology A. A flood of new inventions increased America's productive capacity (how much we could make) and improved its transportation and communications networks-all of which helped to promote industrial growth. 1.) The invention of the typewriter in 1868 helped to improve business communications. 2.) Alexander Graham Bell's invention of the telephone in 1876 further improved communications. 3.) In 1879, Thomas Edison developed the electric light bulb, a cheap method of supplying light. The bulb lit up cities and made industrial production possible 24 hours a day.
Science and Technology B. The textile industry was also revolutionized, as the use of power-driven sewing machines moved the clothing business from small tailor shops to large factories. As a result of mass production, clothing became less expensive and more diverse. C. Industrial growth was tied to advances in specific industries. The Bessemer process revolutionized American steel making in the 1870s. 1.) A boom in the oil industry spurred industrial growth.
What do you need for industrialization to occur? ENTREPRENEURS (WEALTH) WORKERS STABLE GOVERNMENT (FACTORY) TECHNOLOGY NATURAL RESOURCES CUSTOMERS