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Chapter 1, Section 1

Chapter 1, Section 1

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Chapter 1, Section 1

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  1. Chapter 1, Section 1 What are the Characteristics of a Civilization?

  2. Prehistoric analysis relies on archaeology, the study of past societies through an analysis of what people left behind.

  3. Humanlike creatures first emerged in Africa more than 3 to 4 million years ago.

  4. Made it possible for humans to stop their nomadic ways of living, and form more permanent settlements. Allowed by agriculture and animal domestication. Neolithic Revolution

  5. Six of the most important basic characteristics of civilizations are cities, government, religion, social structure, writing, and art. Civilization: A complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a number of common elements.

  6. Judaism influenced the development of Christianity and Islam. The evolution of Israelite monotheism established Judaism as a major world religion.

  7. Efforts to control the flow of water for farming also led to organized governments in these new urban civilizations. Irrigation

  8. Hinduism’s belief in reincarnation, provided justification for the rigid caste system of India. Hinduism was an outgrowth of the religious beliefs of the Aryans: Indo-European-speaking nomadic people who moved south across the Hindu Kush mountain range into the plains of northern India.

  9. His simple message of achieving wisdom through “awakening” created a new spiritual philosophy that came to rival Hinduism. Buddhism (6th century BC) appeared in northern India. It was the product of one man, Siddhārtha Gautama.

  10. China was virtually isolated from other emerging centers of culture elsewhere in the world, and forced to develop on its own. Between 500 b.c. and 200 b.c., three major schools of thought emerged in China—Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism.

  11. Gave kings a divine right to rule, and the idea led to the pattern of dynastic cycles. The Mandate of Heaven (Zhou dynasty)

  12. Hellenistic society Significant achievements occurred in literature and science, and Greek culture spread throughout the Middle East (due to conquest) and made an impact wherever it was carried.

  13. Ancient Greeks created a civilization that was the source of Western culture. Most important: the philosophy of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle; literature; the rational method of inquiry which led to modern science, and artistic values.

  14. The Romans preserved the intellectual heritage of the Greco-Roman world of antiquity. Roman rule was made acceptable by allowing local autonomy and gradually granting Roman citizenship to non-Romans who they conquered.