Day 27: America Secedes from the Empire Baltimore Polytechnic Institute October 2, 2014 A/A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green
America Secedes from the Empire Objective: The students will be able to evaluate the process the colonists took to declare independence by analyzing the actions of the 2nd Continental Congress Drill: These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Thomas Paine, December 1776
Motivation Examine the draft of Jefferson’s “Declaration of Independence” and the final version. Identify differences between the two documents. Hypothesize about reasons for the differences between the 2 documents.
The Second Continental Congress Lexington & Concord-April 1775 2nd Continental Congress-May 10, 1775 Appointed G. Washington to head army in Boston Why? Ticonderoga & Crown Point-May 1775 Bunker Hill June 1775 Olive Branch Petition-July 1775 Colonies in rebellion-August 1775 King George’s next step?- Hessians-Who were they?
Abortive conquest of Canada Colonists decided to invade Canada in the hopes that the conquered French were explosively restive under British control.
Patriots and Loyalists Patriots (Whigs) supported the Revolution Loyalists (Tories) supported the British Crown The Revolution was a minority movement Many were apathetic or neutral British controlled only where they were Loyalist strongholds were in New York City, Charleston, Quaker PA, and NJ
Loyalist Exodus Tarred and feathered Roughly handled Imprisoned Some hanged No reign of terror comparable to France and later Russia-WHY? How was the war financed?
General Washington at Bay Boston evacuated-March 1776 British arrival in NYC-July 1776-largest seen until the Civil War Colonists/G. Washington routed in Battle of Long Island British General Howe did not crush Washington’s army-WHY? Delaware crossing by Washington-December 1776-captured 1,000 Hessians at Trenton, NJ
Burgoyne’s Blundering Invasion Benedict Arnold held off the British at Lake Champlain and the Brits had to stay in Canada. How did the invasion of Canada in 1775 aid this outcome? Burgoyne’s invasion was slow-WHY? General Howe invaded and captured Philadelphia. Washington defeated at Brandywine Creek and Germantown in late 1777 Burgoyne surrenders on Oct. 17, 1777 at Saratoga-What was the impact of this victory?
Revolution in Diplomacy France wanted revenge against Britain Model Treaty-guide for American diplomats dispatched to the French court 1. No political connection 2. No military connection 3. Only a commercial connection Why did the Continental Congress draft such guidance for the commissioners? Britain offered Home Rule after Saratoga Treaty of Alliance-Feb. 6, 1778
The Colonial War becomes a Wider War Spain/Holland entered against Britain in 1779 Rest of Europe-Armed Neutrality Britain had to revisit strategy of blockading colonial coast with French involvement June 1778-Battle of Monmouth 1778-1779-Georgia overrun 1780-Charleston fell Summer 1780-French army arrives in Newport, RI commanded by Comte de Rochambeau 1780-Benedict Arnold Late 1780/early 1781-American victory at King’s Mtn
The Land Frontier and the Sea Frontier West on fire for much of the war Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784)-Indians ceded most of their land in PA and NY Privateers impacted the war-insurance premiums skyrocketed
Yorktown and the Final Curtain High inflation in 1780-1781 2.5 cents on the dollar for bonds Washington and Rochambeau’s French army marched to Yorktown Admiral de Grasse blockaded Chesapeake Bay October 19, 1781
Peace at Paris France wanted a quasi-independent U.S. Why? John Jay negotiated in London, breaking the rules Treaty of Paris Britain recognized independence of U.S. Mississippi to Great Lakes to Spanish Florida
Homework • Revolutionary War Chart • Read Chapter 8