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  1. Quickwrite: To what extent had the colonists developed a sense of their identity and unity as Americans by the eve of the Revolution? 

  2. America Secedes from the Empire 1775 – 1783

  3. Advantages & Disadvantages in the Revolutionary War

  4. I. British Strengths A. British outnumbered colonists 3 to 1 B. British army was professional • Americans had a militia C. George III had money for Hessian mercenaries D. British used Loyalists and Indians to fight

  5. II. British Weaknesses A. Not all British supported colonial policy B. Fighting a war in the colonies was difficult • poor generals, lack of supplies, mistreated soldiers

  6. C. British had to defeat and subjugate the rebellious colonies • a draw would be a victory for the rebels D. Distance and geographical size of America

  7. III. Colonial Strengths A. Good leaders B. Foreign aid C. Fighting defensively D. Agricultural self-sufficiency E. Moral advantage

  8. IV. Colonial Weaknesses A. Disorganized B. Lacking in unity C. No central government D. Jealousy between colonies E. Lack of currency F. Inflation G. Military problems

  9. Basic Military Strategies of the British in the Revolutionary War:

  10. 1. New York • British wanted New York as a base: • centrally located • good seaport • home to Loyalists

  11. 2. Hudson Valley • British wanted control of the Hudson to cut off and isolate New England.

  12. 3. The South • British wanted to take advantage of Loyalist sympathies in the Carolinas and to control Charleston.

  13. 4. The Frontier • British wanted to control the Ohio valley and incite the Indians to strike against colonial outposts.

  14. The 2nd Continental Congress • May 1775 - Second Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia • John Hancock elected President

  15. All 13 colonies send delegates • Desire to redress their grievances • No real movement towards independence yet

  16. June 1775 - Congress makes George Washington commander of the Continental Army

  17. Washington’s selection was largely political • turns out to be one of the greatest decisions they made

  18. Washington takes command of 17,000 militia at Cambridge, Mass.

  19. Continentals • Congress votes to issue $2 million in paper currency • Becomes nearly worthless as currency

  20. A Step Towards Independence • May 1775 - Mecklenburg County Resolutions • drafted by North Carolina • seeks to suspend all royal authority • first “declaration of independence”

  21. The War Without Intention of Independence

  22. May 1775 - Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold capture British fort at Ticonderoga • get cannon and military supplies • May 1775 - British garrison at Crown Point falls at Lake Champlain

  23. Battle of Bunker Hill • May 1775 - British Generals John Burgoyne, Henry Clinton, and William Howe arrive in Boston • June 1775 - General Gage declares rebels traitors & offers amnesty to all who swear allegiance • except Hancock and Adams

  24. June 1775 - Battle of Bunker Hill • British defeat Americans located on Breed’s Hill near Boston • 441 Americans lost • cost Britain 1150 men

  25. Bunker Hill

  26. Olive Branch Petition • July 1775 - Congress seeks reconciliation • King rejects & the colonies declared to be in rebellion

  27. The Hessians • King hired thousands of German mercenaries, called Hessians, to fight the rebels • No longer a “family affair”

  28. Causes andNecessities of Taking Up Arms • July 1775 – written by Thomas Jefferson & adopted by Congress • Still rejects independence but “resolved to die free men rather than live as slaves”

  29. July 1775 - Benjamin Franklin becomes first Postmaster General

  30. Early Defeats… • Oct. 1775 - British forces burn Falmouth (Portland, Maine) • British troops looted stores, burned the city, and sank the towns merchant fleet

  31. Loyalist Governor of Virginia declares martial law • Also promised to free slaves who joined loyalist army

  32. The Canadian Disaster • Nov. 1775 - American General Richard Montgomery occupies Montreal

  33. Dec. 1775 - Battle of Quebec • American forces under Benedict Arnold & Richard Montgomery are defeated • Montgomery killed • Jan. 1776 - Norfolk, Virginia is shelled and burned by British

  34. Common Sense "These are the times that try men's souls…"

  35. Common Sense • Jan. 1776 - Thomas Paine publishes “Common Sense” • presenting a clear argument for independence • 120,000 copies are sold

  36. Why should a tiny island control a huge continent? • Called for a democratic republic in America • Paine’s masterful work of propaganda led thousands to open revolution against the crown

  37. More Fighting… • Cannons from Ticonderoga brought to Boston by Colonel Henry Knox • Feb. 1776 - North Carolina patriots defeat Scottish loyalists at Moore’s Creek Bridge

  38. March 1776 - American forces captured Dorchester Heights over Boston • cannons added to siege • March 1776 - General Howe & his forces evacuate Boston • flee to Halifax, Nova Scotia

  39. Calls for Independence • Jan. 1776 - New Hampshire adopts the first State Constitution • April 1776 - North Carolina directs its delegates in congress to vote for independence (1st to do so!)

  40. War Continues… • April 1776 - Washington goes to New York City to set up defenses in anticipation of Howe’s planned invasion

  41. May - July 1776 - Benedict Arnold gives up siege of Montreal and heads for Lake Champlain • British forces prepare to invade New England

  42. America Woos France • May 1776 - King Louis XVI of France agrees to give $1 million worth of arms to America • 90% of gunpowder used in first 2+ years of war was French

  43. Generals Cornwallis and Clinton meet off North Carolina to prepare invasion • June 1776 - American General Charles Lee successfully defends Charleston from invasion

  44. The Declaration of Independence • June 1776 - Virginian Richard Henry Lee presents a formal declaration of independence to congress

  45. Congress creates a committee to draft a declaration • Thomas Jefferson is designated to write it

  46. July 2, 1776 - Howe lands 10,000 British troops on Staten Island - 32,000 by August - including 9,000 Hessian mercenaries • That same day all delegates except New York vote to support Lee’s resolution

  47. “When in the Course …” • July 4, 1776 - Congress formally adopts the Declaration of Independence

  48. NY will adopt it on July 9 & it will be signed on August 2