the role of shaka in the rise of the zulu empire n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Role of Shaka In The Rise of the Zulu Empire PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Role of Shaka In The Rise of the Zulu Empire

play fullscreen
1 / 16

The Role of Shaka In The Rise of the Zulu Empire

2018 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

The Role of Shaka In The Rise of the Zulu Empire

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The Role of Shaka In The Rise of the Zulu Empire Abigail Andrews

  2. Outline • Introduction • The Bantu Migration • Settling in Southern Africa • Separation into Chiefdoms • Shaka Takes the Throne • Military Reform • Creation of an Empire • The Mfecane • Shaka’s Legacy • Fall of the Zulu Empire • Conclusion

  3. Introduction • Today: Largest and most influential tribe in South Africa • Rise to power began with Bantu Migration (first millennium CE) • Existed as one of many autonomous tribes in area • Creation of empire began with leader Shaka Zulu • Shaka formed military state - agricultural economy • Structure provided base for expansion of empire Picture 1 Map of South Africa and Zululand

  4. The Bantu Migration • Occurred Around 300 CE • Small waves of Bantu speaking people • Slow migration from East and West Africa • Migrated because of overpopulation • Farming people • Introduced agricultural lifestyle and practices to southern Africa • Up until migration, area only occupied by hunter/gatherers and herders Picture 2 Map of Bantu Migration Paths

  5. Settling in Southern Africa • Bantu farmers formed farming villages • Successful farming economies – sustainable and productive • Bantu farmers collided with Khoisan speaking hunter/gatherers • Bantu killed or incorporated Khoisan into communities • Farming lifestyle = rich, steady diet = stronger physiques • Division of labor • Blacksmith trade – iron weapons • Agricultural lifestyle = dominance over native people, healthy population, division of labor, development of culture

  6. Separation into Chiefdoms • Villages became roughly separated chiefdoms • Each chiefdom/tribe developed distinct government/culture • Bantu in eastern South Africa were called Nguni • Nguni separated into clan-based tribes • One of these tribes was the Zulu tribe Picture 3 Daily Life in Tribe

  7. Shaka Takes the Throne • Zulu tribe small and weak at beginning of 19th century • Dominant tribes in area: Ndwandwe and Mthethwa • Shaka took throne in 1816 • Extensive military background • Goal of uniting Nguni tribes • Creation of military kingdom Picture 4 King Shaka Zulu

  8. Military Reform • Shaka’s empire built on military • Military reform, tactics, strategy, obediance • Created age-based regiments called impis • Isolation from society • Regimental pride, loyalty • Replaced long assegai spear with short, close contact version • Organized nation into military camp: sole purpose was war • Overall: Created military machine Picture 5 Shaka in traditional warrior gear

  9. Creation of an Empire • 1818: Shaka began creating empire through conquest • First conquered once-powerful Mthethwa kingdom • Created rivalry between Zulu and Ndwandwe • 1818: Zulu army defeated Ndwandwe • Became only dominant power in area • Used army to continue incorporating neighboring kingdoms • Expansion created vast empire

  10. The Mfecane • Zulu policy of conquest • Destroyed conquered lands, often slaughtered people • Mfecane: War-torn period of chaos and migration in southern Africa in early 19th century • Zulu regiments wiped out entire settlements, crushed tribes • Mfecane expanded Zulu empire, created new tribes due to mass migration Picture 6 Map of Mfecane Migration

  11. Shaka’s Legacy • Shaka assassinated in 1828 • Legacy continued until late 1800’s • He created a stable empire controlling entire north-eastern section of South Africa • Successors, Dingane and Mpande, led Zulu tribe through period of peace • Peace despite war with Boer settlers and complicated relations with British colonies Picture 7 Shaka in military gear

  12. Fall of the Zulu Empire • Cetshwayo took throne in 1873 • Period of unrest and instability • Solidity created by Shaka and successors until 1870’s • Increasing tensions with British • 1879 – British ultimatum • Cetshwayo refused • British invaded Zululand, conquered empire, divided into thirteen provinces • Zulu tribe never united as one nation or empire again Picture 8 Cetshwayo, the last Zulu king

  13. Conclusion • United Zulu kingdom stood for over fifty years • Result of stable farming economy and Shaka’s leadership • Chain of events: • Bantu Settlement after Migration • Farming economy • Ideal conditions for creation of Empire • Shaka’s reign • Conquest led by Shaka • Shaka’s Legacy Without Shaka’s creation of an empire through conquest, strong leadership, and long lasting legacy, Zulu empire may never have risen into power

  14. Picture Bibliography • Picture 1: “Zululand.” Zululand Safaris. 2006. 24 April 2006. http://www.e-gnu.com/images/satour/Maps/zululand.gif • Picture 2: “Bantu Migration.” MSN Encarta. 2005. Multimedia from Encarta. 24 April 2006. http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/mhi/000f2413.gif • Picture 3: “Drawing Water.” The General View and beyond: Social documentary photography, slum clearance and state social welfare programs, ca. 1934 – 1948.1937. The Bantu-Speaking Tribes of South Africa. An Ethnographical Survey. 24 April 2006. http://www.is.und.ac.za/dutoit40s/images/figure5.jpg • Picture 4: “Shaka.” African Dawn. 2004. Insight and Tailored Arrangements for Visitors to Southern Africa. 24 April 2006. http://www.capetown.at/africandawn/Images/shaka.JPG • Picture 5: “Shaka in Traditional Zulu Military Dress.” Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. 2005. History of South Africa. 24 April 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:KingShaka.jpeg • Picture 6: “Mfecane Migration.” MSN Encarta. 2005. Migrations of the Mfecane. 24 April 2006. http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/mhi/T304262A.gif • Picture 7: “Shaka Zulu.” Zar.co.za 2003. Hall of Fame Biographies. 25 April 2006. http://zar.co.za/images/bio/shakab.jpg • Picture 8: “Cetshwayo.” Schwartz Online. 2004. The Zulu War. 25 April 2006. http://schwartz.eng.auburn.edu/zulu/picts/cetshwayo.jpg

  15. Bibliography – Web Sources “Bantus.” World History: Ancient and Medieval. 2006. ABC-CLIO. 7 Feb. 2006. http://www.ancienthistory.abce-clio.com “Bantu Migration.” World History: Ancient and Medieval. 2006. ABC-CLIO. 7 Feb. 2006. http://www.ancienthistory.abc-clio.com “Africa in the Nineteenth Century, 1780-1914.” Gale Student Resource Center. 10 Feb. 2006. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SRC?txba=Zulu+%28African+people%29&vrsn=3.0 “Zulu Power: From Shaka to Inkatha.” The Economist. 12-125-1999. Gale Student Resource Center. 10 Feb. 2006. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SRC?txba=Zulu+History&vrsn=3.0 “Zulu.” Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life. 4 vols. Gale Student Resource Center. 10 Feb. 2006. “Zulu” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Online School Edition. 10 Feb. 2006. http://school.edb.com/eb/aricle-9078488 “Shaka.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Online School Edition. 10 Feb. 2006. http://school.edb.com/eb/article-9067085 “Early Zulu History: Zulu Culture and Traditions.” 28 Jan. 2005. 10 Feb. 2006. http://www.warthog.co.za//dedt/tourism/culture/history/early.htm “Zulu History – Shaka: Zulu Culture and Traditions.” Jan. 2005. 10 Feb. 2006. http://www.warthog.co.za//dedt/tourism/culture/history/shaka.htm “Zulu History – Dingane: Zulu Culture and Traditions.” Jan. 2005. 10 Feb. 2006. http://www.warthog.co.za//dedt/tourism/culture/history/dingane.htm “Zululand: The History of the Zulu Nation.” 2005. 10 Feb. 2006. http://zululand.kzn.org.za/zululand/about/46.xml

  16. Bibliography - Books Thompson, Leonard. “A History of South Africa.” New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990. Taylor, Stephen. “Shaka’s Children.” London: HarperCollinsPublishers, 1994. Reader, John. “Africa: A Biography of the Continetn.” New York: Alfred Knopf, 1998. Krige, E.J. “The Military Organization of the Zulus.” People and Cultures of Africa – An Anthropoligcal Reader. Ed. P. Skinner. 1973.