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The Roman Empire PowerPoint Presentation
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The Roman Empire

The Roman Empire

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The Roman Empire

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  1. The Roman Empire 218 BCE

  2. The Roman Empire 350 CE

  3. trabeated construction • limited span due to stones poor tensile strength • requires a considerable amount of vertical structure

  4. The Aqueducts at Nimes, France

  5. 1:3000

  6. arch is the basic module for Roman arcuated construction

  7. arch works by exploiting the stone’s compressive strength

  8. …an arch thrown down a straight axis groin vault: a perpendicular intersection of 2 barrel vaults

  9. a dome is an arch spun on a central vertical axis

  10. Pantheon Rome, Hadrian, 100-125 CE

  11. Pantheon, Rome, Hadrian, 100-125 CE—“Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, Consul for the third time, built this” third iteration—originally built as a temple to all the Gods

  12. Pantheon, Rome, Hadrian, 100-125 CE

  13. Pantheon, Rome, Hadrian, 100-125 CE height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 meters (142 ft)

  14. do you remember what these are called?

  15. coffered ceiling coffers were poured in molds, probably on the temporary scaffolding oculus admits only light

  16. marble comes from Egypt, Numidia, Asia minor, & Gaul—shows span of Roman Empire

  17. 350 CE

  18. Appian Way • cobbled roadway • constructed more than 2200 years ago • primary route from Rome to Greece—transport of goods

  19. Pantheon, Rome, Hadrian, 100-125 CE

  20. Pantheon, aedicule, Rome, Hadrian, 100-125 CE

  21. Pilaster Column

  22. IBM Tower Philip Johnson 1987

  23. Pilaster Column

  24. Baths of Caracalla Rome, Hadrian, 100-125 CE

  25. could hold an estimated 1,600 bathers

  26. A-Calidarium B-Nymphaeum C-Great Hall D-Frigidarium (Swimming Pool) E-Courts G-Palaestra H-Lecture Halls I-Vestibules L-Dressing Rooms N-Steam Baths Q-Lounges S-Gymnasia T-Study Rooms V-Nymphaea

  27. Sequence of Spaces Calidarium (Hot) Tepidarium (Warm) Gymnasium Frigidarium (Cold) Massage Natatio (Pool) Dressing Rooms

  28. section cut of Baths of Caracalla • more a leisure centre than just a series of baths • second to have a public library within the complex

  29. Interior of Baths of Caracalla

  30. Basilica Ulpia Rome, Trajan, 100-125 CE • reconstruction drawing of the Forum of Trajan shows: • the triumphal arch at the entrance • statue of the emperor on horseback • hemicycles • Basilica Ulpia (a law court) (5) two libraries (6) Trajan's Column (7) his temple

  31. Basilica Ulpia large roofed hall erected for transacting business and disposing of legal matters— largest and most lavish in Rome and would have been regarded as a model of its type

  32. "The Basilica Ulpia may not have been a building of any profound architectural originality. But there are few monuments of antiquity that enjoyed a greater and more enduring prestige, or that did more to shape the subsequent course of architectural history." Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture

  33. usually contained interior colonnades that divided space • giving aisles or arcaded spaces at one or both sides • with an apse at one end (or less often at each end) where the magistrates sat, often on a slightly raised dais

  34. Interior central aisle tended to be wide and was higher than the flanking aisles, so light could penetrate through the clerestory windows

  35. The main dining room was a rotunda, which revolved slowly, day and night, like the vault of heaven itself. There were baths with a lavish supply of both sea-water and sulphur water. Domus Aurea Nero’s Golden House, Tivoli, 64-80 CE

  36. Nero’s Golden House, Domus Aurea, Tivoli, 64-80 CE When the palace was completed on this sumptuous scale, Nero’s approval as he dedicated it was confined to the remark ‘At last I can begin to live like a human being’ (Suetonius, Nero 31)

  37. Jack Arch Nero’s Golden House, Domus Aurea, Tivoli, Severus and Celer, 64-80 CE

  38. Nero’s Golden House, Domus Aurea, Tivoli, Severus and Celer, 64-80 CE

  39. Hadrian’s Villa Tivoli, 118-133 CE complex of over 30 buildings included palaces, several thermae, theatre, temples, libraries, state rooms and quarters for courtiers, praetorians and slaves

  40. Canopus & Serapeum Maritime Villa Site Plan of Hadrian’s Villa retreat from Rome for Roman Emperor Hadrian in the early 2nd century

  41. canopus (pool) Serapeum (grotto)

  42. Hadrian’s Villa, Canopus, Tivoli, 118-133 CE

  43. evidence of the expanse of the Roman Empire Egyptian Alligator Greek Caryatid