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GROWTH PATTERNS. a) sigmoid growth curve ( organism and population ) b) human growth curve c) limited growth curve ( annual plants ) and unlimited growth curve ( perennial plants ) d) isometric growth ( fish ) and allometric growth

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slide1

GROWTH PATTERNS

a) sigmoid growth curve ( organism and population )

b) human growth curve

c) limited growth curve ( annual plants ) and unlimited

growth curve ( perennial plants )

d) isometric growth ( fish ) and allometric growth

( human organs )

e) intermittent growth curve ( arthropods )

slide2

22.3 Types of Growth Curves

Objectives

1

By the end of the lesson the students should be able to:

  • give the types of growth curves
  • describe the types of growth curves
  • give the example of organisms which growth pattern follow the growth curves
slide3

Growth patterns

Sigmoid Growth Curves

2

  • Organism that have a sigmoid growth curve are:-
    • Individual organism / large size of multi cell plants / animals
    • Microorganisms population ( yeast, bacteria )
slide4

Growth patterns

Sigmoid Growth Curves

3

slide5

Growth Patterns

The Patterns

1

  • patterns of growth vary from species to species
  • the patterns of growth in living multicellular organisms are:

human growth curve

vs.

allometric

isometric

limited

unlimited

vs.

Intermittent growth curve

slide7

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

2

  • In human, the growth curve after birth appears to consist of two sigmoid curves, with two main rapid growth phases, the infant phaseand the adolescent phase.
  • A slower growth phase is known as the childhood phasecan be found in between these two rapid growth phases.
slide8

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

3

infant phase

childhood phase

adolescent phase

B

A

C D

slide9

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

4

  • Human growth curve:

i. Prenatal growth ( before birth )

ii. Postnatal growth ( after birth )

slide10

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

5

Prenatal growth

Postnatal growth

slide11

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

6

Prenatal growth

  • In embryos, the brain and the head will both start growth and development together in the early phase of life, while;
slide12

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

6

Prenatal growth

  • The complete development of hands and feet only occurs in the later phase.
slide13

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

Postnatal growth

7

slide14

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

8

  • Infant phase:
  • Very rapid growth rate
  • Irrespective in both male or female babies.
slide15

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

9

  • 2. Childhood phase :
  • growth rate is slower.
  • beginning at the age of four,
  • the rate is slightly higher in boys than in girls
slide16

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

10

  • 3. Adolescent phase:
  • growth rate is rapid.
  • in the earlier part of this growth phase, females demonstrate a more rapid growth rate
  • i.e. two years earlier than begins in males.
slide17

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

11

  • 3. Adolescent phase:
  • At the later part of this growth phase, the male growth rate becomes higher than the female growth rate.
  • This difference results in the females attaining puberty at an earlier age compared to males.
  • Females attain puberty around the age of 12, while males attain puberty when they are about 14 years old.
slide18

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

12

  • 4. Adult phase:
  • growth rate is zero
  • most individuals would have attained maturity.
  • Males achieve this phase at the age about 18 while females at the age around 16.
slide19

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

13

5. Ageing phase

  • growth rate is negative
  • i.e. the body proportion will start to decrease starting from the age of 30.
slide20

Growth patterns

Human Growth Curves

13

slide21

Growth patterns

Limited Growth Curves

14

  • The growth of an organism to a maximum fixed size, which depends on the type of the organism.
    • Relative short life span
slide22

Growth patterns

Limited Growth Curves

14

  • Growth is complete when the organism achieves its maximum size.
    • and then demonstrates the negative growth, senescence
  • A single Sigmoid growth shape
slide23

Growth patterns

Limited Growth Curves

15

  • e.g. most plants and animals, including human
slide24

Growth patterns

Limited Growth Curves

17

Annual plant growth curve eg: Pisumsativum ( Pea plant )

slide25

Growth patterns

Limited Growth Curves

16

  • In annual plants, the sigmoid growth curve of dry mass versus time shows a small reduction in dry massin the initial part of growth, due to seed germination.
  • During germination, food stored in the cotyledons is usually used up before the first leaves undergo photosynthesis.
slide26

Growth patterns

Limited Growth Curves

18

  • This loss of mass is laterreplaced when the first leaves develop and start photosynthesis.
  • Later, growth rate is very rapid, until it becomes constant at a later stage.
  • This rapid growth rate is maintained until the plant achieves maturity, after which the rate gradually reduces until it becomes zero.
  • e.g: pea plant
slide27

Growth patterns

Unlimited Growth Curves

19

  • Refer to non-stop growth over a relatively long life span
  • Example organisms demonstrate unlimited growth:
    • Obeliacolonies,
    • coral reefs and
    • multiple season woody trees
slide28

Growth patterns

Unlimited Growth Curves

19

  • The growth curve for unlimited growth comprises a series of small sigmoid curves.
  • This type of curve shows that there is an increase in the mass and size every season.
slide29

Growth patterns

Unlimited Growth Curves

20

  • In plants that demonstrate unlimited growth, there is no fixed rate and the growth continues until enemies, natural catastrophe or diseases cause destructive effects on them.
slide30

Growth patterns

Unlimited Growth Curves

21

Unlimited growth curve ( perennial plants )

slide31

Growth patterns

Unlimited Growth Curves

22

slide32

Growth Patterns

AllometricGrowth

23

Allo= Gk. different

  • The growth of an organism within which different organs grow at different ratesfrom each other and from the overall growth.
  • involves the change in size and external

shape/ features of the organism

slide33

Growth Patterns

AllometricGrowth

23

Allo= Gk. different

  • involves the change in size and external

shape/ features of the organism

slide34

Growth Patterns

AllometricGrowth

24

  • It shows the correlation between the growth and development of the organism
  • e.g. in mammals: the growth rates of the lymphatic and reproductive tissues is different
  • i.e. the growth rates of both tissues are the highest at the different stages of development
slide35

Growth Patterns

AllometricGrowth

25

  • the mammalian lymphatic tissues grows rapidly during the early childhood years
  • but during adolescence its growth rate is lower, why?
  • the mammalian reproductive tissues grows faster during the stage of adolescence, why?
slide36

This is because lymphoid tissues are required by a young

individual to give it natural immunity and defense againts

disease.This function is less needed during the adult phase.

The reproductive system only starts to grow and

develop during the adolescent phase.

Similarly, in embryos, the brain and the head will both

start growth and development together in the early

phase of life, while the complete development of hands

and feet only occurs in the later phase.

slide37

Growth Patterns

AllometricGrowth

26

slide38

Growth Patterns

AllometricGrowth

28

ALLOMETRIC GROWTH

slide39

Growth Patterns

Isometric Growth

29

  • The growth of an organism within the organs grow at the same rates with the other parts of the body.
  • the relative size of the organs is constant
  • i.e. the size of the organs increase, but the external features remain the same
  • e.g. fish, grasshoppers, cockroaches
slide40

Growth Patterns

Isometric Growth

30

  • not accompanied by a change in shape of the organism
slide41

Growth Patterns

Isometric Growth

31

  • e.g. in grasshoppers
  • the relative proportion of the organs and whole body (size and shape remain the same
slide42

Growth Patterns

Isometric Growth

32

  • e.g. in a cucumber leaf
slide43

Growth Patterns

33

Intermittent Growth Curve

  • It is a discontinuous growth occurs in insects & other arthropods metamorphosis.
  • Growth is limited by the hard exoskeleton during certain periods until the ecdysis / moultingprocess takes place.
  • Then, growth occurs very suddenly at a rapid pace.(rate of movement)
  • Produces astep-like (intermittant) growth curve.
  • Each stage in between ecdysis is known as instar.
slide44

Growth Patterns

34

Intermittent Growth Curve

  • in arthropods e.g. insects

adult

Ecdysis @

5th instar

Ecdysis

3rd instar

slide45

Growth Patterns

35

Intermittent Growth Curve

Ecdysis:

  • also known as moulting
  • a process of changing the old exoskeleton of arthropods replaced with new soft layer and later becomes harden again.
  • occur periodically to allow growth and development.
  • during ecdysis, arthropod breathes in a lot of air

- body expands and break the old exoskeleton

slide46

Growth Patterns

36

Intermittent Growth Curve

Ecdysis:

when old exoskeleton is removed,

arthropod once again breathing in more air to increase it size before

newly formed layer of chitinious exoskeleton hardens.

slide49

Growth Patterns

38

Intermittent Growth Curve

Metamorphosis: Definition

  • a process of changing in shape which occur from one stage to the following stage in animals (insect).
  • two types: complete and incomplete
    • complete metamorphosisoccur in holometabolic insects e.g. housefly, butterfly
    • incomplete metamorphosisoccur in hemimetabolic insects e.g. cockroach grasshopper