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FORAMINIFERA: PART 1 - AN INTRODUCTION. FORAMINIFERA. Single-celled Amoeba- like Testate & usually multichambered Net-like pseudopods Anastomosing & Reticulating Dimorphic life cycles are complex Nearly 4 000 genera known 60 000 species known!. LIVE FORAM.

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foraminifera
FORAMINIFERA
  • Single-celled
  • Amoeba- like
  • Testate & usually

multichambered

  • Net-like pseudopods
    • Anastomosing &
    • Reticulating
  • Dimorphic life cycles are complex
  • Nearly 4 000 genera known
  • 60 000 species known!
live foram
LIVE FORAM
  • Note pseudopodia capturing food particles
  • Note multichambered calcareous skeleton
foraminifera1
FORAMINIFERA
  • 50 to 60 species of living planktic forams
  • Many thousands of living benthic species
  • ~1 000+ genera living
  • Up to 1 million individuals per square metre benthos
  • Movement-feeding categories:
    • Crawling:
      • Mudeaters (detritus feeders)
      • Micropredators
      • Herbivores
    • Burrowing mudeaters
    • Reclining suspension feeders
    • Encrusting suspension feeders
microscopes used in studies
Microscopes used in Studies
  • Transmitted light – whole mounts
  • Transmitted light – thin sections
  • Reflected light
  • SEM
sample preparation
Sample Preparation
  • Study unconsolidated sediments as the 1st choice
    • Wash (heat & baking soda) any fines from sediments
    • Sieve coarse and separate sand fractions
    • Juveniles tend to look alike – even among different genera, so pick 0.125 mm fraction & above
  • Some shale can be broken down by heating in water & soaking in organic solvents. Then, treated as above.
  • Other rocks: Simply boiling crushed samples with baking soda helps to release some sediment
  • Thin sections may be resorted to, but usually thin section studies not very effective, except for fusulinids & a few other kinds of forams.
generalized history based on wall composition structure
Generalized History Based on Wall Composition & Structure
  • Note:
    • Early organic walled & arenaceous forams in Cambrian
    • Calcareous microgranular forams in Ordovician
    • Porcelaneous in Carboniferous
    • Hyaline in Permian
    • Planktic in Late Jurassic
    • Nummulitids = Late K to Early Cenozoic
application of foram studies
Application of Foram Studies
  • Very useful indicators for
    • Biostratigraphy
      • Dating
      • Correlation
    • Paleoenvironments
      • Depths
      • Climates
      • Habitats
      • Paloeautecology (species) & paleosynecology (community)
    • Evolution
      • Gradualistic phenomena
      • Punctuated equilibrium examples
climate changes interpreted from deep sea cores
CLIMATE CHANGES INTERPRETEDFROM DEEP-SEA CORES
  • Identification of planktic foraminiferal species
    • Date layers in deep-sea cores.
    • Plotting the abundance of cold and warm climate species from core samples indicates climatic changes through time.
climate changes interpreted from deep sea cores1
CLIMATE CHANGES INTERPRETEDFROM DEEP-SEA CORES
  • O18/O16 ratios from used to determine
    • Paleotemperature changes with planktic species &
    • Ice-volume changes with benthic species

Triserial, planktic