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Introduction to the FIA Down Woody Materials Indicator 1st of 3 Part Training Series

Introduction to the FIA Down Woody Materials Indicator 1st of 3 Part Training Series

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Introduction to the FIA Down Woody Materials Indicator 1st of 3 Part Training Series

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  1. Introduction to the FIA Down Woody Materials Indicator1st of 3 Part Training Series Christopher Woodall DWM National Indicator Advisor

  2. Outline • Indicator Updates • What are Down Woody Materials? • Why Collect DWM data? • Sampling Design Theory

  3. Indicator Updates • No sample protocol changes • Field manual updated • Web-site updated • DWM sample design and analysis in press – NC-GTR-256 • Web-based dissemination of data and wider use of data

  4. Definition of DWM Dead material within forests in various stages of decay such as fallen trees, branches, and leaf litter The FIA program places numerous forest ecosystem components into the DWM Indicator

  5. DWM Components Coarse Woody Debris Duff Fine Woody Debris Shrubs/ Herbs Slash Litter

  6. Coarse and Fine Woody Debris

  7. Fuel-Hour Classes

  8. Duff and Litter “dead plant material on forest floor surface” “unrecognizable plant parts”

  9. Slash/Residue Piles Piles of CWD

  10. Shrub and Herbs “Live and dead shrubs/herbs including grass, herbaceous woody plants, and vines”

  11. Fuelbed “Depth of the fuel’s complex, from forest floor to the tallest fuel component”

  12. Why collect DWM data? • Indicator of Forest Health • Wildlife Habitat • Fuels Estimation • Carbon Estimation • Completes Life Cycle of Trees

  13. Indicator of Forest Health Crown Condition Soils Ozone Injury Down Woody Materials Lichens Vegetation Structure and Diversity Tree Damage

  14. Wildlife The DWM Inventory describes the amount and condition of wildlife habitat through estimation of coarse woody debris attributes.

  15. Wildlife Mean estimates of CWD volumes for forests of the North Central Region

  16. Wildlife Proportions of coarse woody debris pieces per acre by transect diameter (A) and decay class (B) (1=least decayed, 5=most decayed), Indiana, 2001-2003

  17. Fuels 1-hr 10-hr 100-hr Total Fine Woody Debris

  18. Fire Science Estimates for DWM in Boundary Waters Canoe Area Compared to rest of region

  19. Carbon Estimation Estimates of Regional Carbon Pools for Coarse Woody Debris Estimates for International Treaties and Criterion Indicators

  20. DWM and National Inventory Completes inventory of trees from living, to dead, to decomposed Microplot Sapling Sub-plot Tree Sub-plot Standing Dead DWM Down and Dead

  21. Summary of DWM Components

  22. DWM Sampling Theory DWM diversity requires a diversity of sampling methods

  23. Sampling on the Sub-Plot Slash Piles 2 Similar to sampling phase two trees, if a center of a slash pile coincides with a subplot it is considered an “in” slash pile Microplot N Subplot 1 4 3

  24. Sampling on the Sub-Plot “out” slash pile “in” slash pile Slash piles are sampled across all four subplots FIA Subplot

  25. Sampling on the Microplot In order to estimate shrub/herb heights and coverage for forests (fuel ladders) estimate shrub/herb heights and coverage occurring on micro-plot 6.8 ft Radius

  26. Depth Estimates on Subplot Litter In order to estimate depth of duff, litter, and the fuelbed on a subplot… Duff 12 sample points located for measurement on subplots Fuelbed

  27. Depth Estimates on Subplots 2 Sample Locations 1 4 3

  28. Transect Sampling FWD and CWD pieces are not all counted within a given area rather… All FWD and CWD pieces that intersect a sampling plane are tallied

  29. Transect Sampling Probability of match stick intersecting randomly placed line related to number of sticks and length of line

  30. Transect Sampling Planes DWM Sample Protocol establishes 6 foot tall sampling transects that radiate from FIA subplot centers to intersect woody pieces

  31. CWD and FWD Transects Use 3 transects established on each subplot to sample CWD, one transect on each subplot to sample FWD

  32. Bringing it all Together

  33. Conclusions • The DWM indicator estimates numerous ecosystem components • Data Crucial to Fire, Carbon, and Wildlife Sciences • Integral Part of National FIA Program, Completes Tree Life Cycle • Series of different sampling techniques for estimation of various DWM components applied to phase two plots

  34. FIA’s Down Woody Materials Field Sampling Protocols2nd of 3 Part Training Series Christopher Woodall DWM National Indicator Advisor

  35. Outline • Transect Segmenting • Coarse Woody Debris • Fine Woody Debris • Duff, Litter and Fuelbed • Shrubs and Herbs • Slash Piles

  36. 2 1 3 4 Subplot CWD 30 Annular plot 270 24 feet (h.d.) Three / subplot 150 10 ft (s.d.) FWD (large) 6 ft (s.d.) FWD (small & medium) 6.8 ft. radius microplot 14 ft (s.d.) 20 ft (s.d.) 24ft (s.d.) One per subplot Duff, Litter, Fuelbed depths 24 ft. location, every transect

  37. Transect Segmenting 1) Only sample DWM components on accessible forest land  2) Must map changes in forest condition classes along transects

  38. Transect Segmenting Non-Forest CC #2 Forest CC #1 10 ft Transect length must equal 24 ft, Horizontal Dist.

  39. Coarse Woody Debris Moderate Decay Mostly Decayed Freshly Fallen Sampling Procedures Depend on Decay of Individual Pieces

  40. CWD Decay Classes

  41. CWD Tally Rules Point of Intersection Transect Transect Diameter CWD Piece Axis • Decay Classes 1 - 4 • Piece >= 3” Transect Diameter • Piece >= 3’ Long • Decay Class 5 • Piece >= 5” Transect Diameter • Piece >= 3’ Long • Piece >= 5” Above ground-level

  42. CWD Tally Rules Cont’d Only tally portion of log above ground and or above water Standing dead trees are CWD if they lean >= 45  from vertical Must have a diameter >= 3 inches along entire length Tally a piece each time it intersects any transect, regardless of the number of times If log split down center, treat as two separate pieces

  43. CWD Forks and Branches Forked Pieces Each fork must meet minimum specs Fork with largest diameter at the crotch is the ‘main bole’ 2nd fork ends at the crotch Large branch Branch must meet minimum specs Length measured from small end to the point where it connects to main bole

  44. CWD Measurements Transect Diameter Large End Diameter Small End Diameter Decay Class Species Hollow? CWD History Length CWD distance Decay Class 1-4 5

  45. CWD Lengths and Diameters Measure here Measure here Length is measured between diameter measurements When the ends of the log are splintered or crumbling from decay…measure the diameter at the point where it best represents the overall volume of the log.

  46. CWD Lengths Separates if Pulled CWD Length CWD Length CWD Diameter CWD Diameter If CWD piece is fractured, either across diameter or length, and crew determines it would separate if pulled by either end… Then… Tally as two separate CWD pieces

  47. Fine Woody Debris Count FWD pieces, by size class, intersecting subplot transects

  48. FWD Sample Design 30 Tallied on 150 degree transect on each subplot 270 150 Size-Class Tally Counts 10 ft (s.d.) Large FWD: Tally pieces 1” – 2.9” 6 ft (s.d.) Medium FWD: Tally pieces >= ¼ ” – .9” Small FWD: Tally pieces < ¼ ” 14 ft (s.d.) 20 ft (s.d.) 24ft (s.d.)

  49. FWD Tally Rules • Estimate FWD tally after count > 50 for diameter < 1 inch • Estimate FWD tally after count > 20 for diameter >= 1 inch • Make attempt to tally FWD first due to trampling • If count exceeds 100 in any size class indicate reason why (i.e. rat’s nest or fallen tree) • If a pile intersects the FWD transect (14 – 24’) do not measure FWD (code ‘Yes’ for ‘RP_on_transect’)

  50. Duff, Litter, and Fuelbed Depth of 3 fuel layers above mineral soil