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Ecology Chapter 7. Aquatic Ecosystems. Standard 5 - Biomes. Examine the major freshwater and marine ecosystems {CLE 3255.5.3,.4,.5} Obj: Describe the factors and characteristics that determine each water biome and the organisms that live there Freshwater Biome*.

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ecology chapter 7

Ecology Chapter 7

Aquatic Ecosystems

standard 5 biomes
Standard 5 - Biomes
  • Examine the major freshwater and marine ecosystems
  • {CLE 3255.5.3,.4,.5}
  • Obj:
  • Describe the factors and characteristics that determine each water biome and the organisms that live there
  • Freshwater Biome*
sec 1 freshwater ecosystems
Sec. 1: Freshwater Ecosystems
  • Wetland - land that is periodically under water
  • Factors that determine which organisms live in an area are:
  • salinity, temperature, oxygen, sunlight, and nutrients
  • Include: lakes, ponds, swamps, and marshes
types of organisms
Types of Organisms
  • Plankton: float near the surface
  • 2 Types:
  • 1.) Phytoplankton - microscopic plants;
  • 2.) Zooplankton - microscopic animals
  • Nekton: free swimming organisms - fish, turtles, whales, etc.
  • Benthos: bottom dwellers - muscles, worms, bacteria, etc.
lakes and ponds
Lakes and Ponds
  • Lakes, ponds, wetlands, rivers, streams
  • 2 Zones:
  • 1.) Littoral - near the shore;
  • 2.) Benthic - bottom of the lake or pond - decomposers, insect larvae, and clams
  • Eutrophication - increase in the amount of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystems
  • Can cause damage to the lake and life
swamps and marshes
Swamps and Marshes
  • Swamps: dominated by woody plants such as trees and shrubs
  • Occur on flat, poorly drained land often near streams
  • Variety of plant and animal life exists
  • Contain non-woody plants such as cattails
  • Florida Everglades is the largest freshwater wetland in US
  • Occur in low, flat lands and have little water movement
  • Several kinds of marshes each with it’s own characteristics and salinity
  • Most originate from snow melt in mountains
  • Changes with the land and climate through which it flows
  • Runoff effects the growth and health of the water and organisms
  • Life adapts to the different parts of the river (flow, temp, etc.)
standard 5 biomes1
Standard 5 - Biomes
  • Examine the major freshwater and marine ecosystems
  • {CLE 3255.5.3,.4,.5}
  • Obj:
  • Describe the factors and characteristics that determine each water biome and the organisms that live there
  • Marine Biome*
sec 7 2 marine ecosystems
Sec. 7-2: Marine Ecosystems
  • Located mainly in coastal areas and in the open ocean
  • Organisms in coastal areas adapt to changes in water level and salinity
  • In open ocean they adapt to temperature, amount of sunlight and nutrients
coastal wetlands
Coastal Wetlands
  • Covered by salt water for all or part of the time
  • Estuaries, Marshes, and Swamps
  • Provide habitat and nesting for many fish and wildlife
  • Absorb excess rain, protects areas from flooding
  • An area in which fresh water from rivers mixes with salt water from the ocean
  • Very productive ecosystems because they constantly receive fresh nutrients
estuaries plants and animals
Estuaries: Plants and Animals
  • Receives lots of sunlight and plenty of nutrients for plants and animals
  • Provide protected harbors and access to the ocean, and connection to the river
threats to estuaries
Threats to Estuaries
  • In populated areas, used as places to dump wastes
  • Pollutants can destroy; breaks down over time, but estuaries cannot cope with the amounts produced by large human populations
salt marshes
Salt Marshes
  • Develop in estuaries where rivers dump mineral rich mud
  • Breeding ground for clams, fish, birds, shrimps, and crabs
  • Absorb pollutants and protect inland areas
mangrove swamps
Mangrove Swamps
  • Located along coastal areas of tropical and subtropical zones
  • Mangrove trees dominate these areas
  • Grow partly submerged in warm shallow waters
  • Help protect the coastline from erosion and reduce damage from storms
rocky and sandy shores
Rocky and Sandy Shores
  • Rocky shores have more plants and animals than sandy shores
  • Rocks provide anchors and protection to the organisms
  • Sandy shores often dry out and organisms get stranded
coral reefs
Coral Reefs
  • Built by tiny coral animals that secrete limestone which slowly accumulate to form the coral reef
  • Live only in clear and warm salt water with sunlight for photosynthesis
  • Among the most diverse ecosystem on Earth
two types of corals
Two types of Corals

Hard Coral

Soft Coral

Sea fingers and sea whips

Do not build coral reefs

  • Brain Coral and elkhorn coral
  • Build coral reefs
types of reefs
Types of Reefs
  • Fringing reefs are reefs that form along a coastline. They grow on the continental shelf in shallow water.
  • Barrier reefs grow parallel to shorelines, but farther out, usually separated from the land by a deep lagoon.
  • Coral Atolls are rings of coral that grow on top of old, sunken volcanoes in the ocean.
humans and coral reefs
Humans and coral reefs
  • Fragile ecosystem
  • 27% of coral reefs in the world are in danger of destruction from human activities
  • Oil spills, sewage, pesticides, and silt runoff have been linked to coral reef destruction
human interaction cont
Human interaction (cont.)
  • Over fishing can deplete fish populations and upset the reefs balance
  • Reefs grow slowly so may not be able to overcome repair the damage
  • Sunlight that is usable only goes to about 100m (330ft) into the ocean before the sunlight is absorbed
  • Much of the oceans life is concentrated in the shallow, coastal waters
  • Seaweed and algae grow anchored to rocks, phytoplankton float near the surface, invertebrates that feed on these are also concentrated near the shore
plants and animals of the ocean
Plants and Animals of the Ocean
  • In open ocean; least productive of all ecosystems
  • Phytoplankton only grow in area where there is enough sunlight
  • Zooplankton live near the surface with the phytoplankton they feed on
  • The larger organisms come closer to the surface to feed on these organisms
  • Decomposers, filter feeders that do not depend on sunlight dwell in the depths
sunlit zone or the euphotic zone
Sunlit zone or the Euphotic zone



include most ocean fishincluding:

sharks and rays, man-o'-war, jellyfish, sea turtles, seals, coral, and zooplankton

  • Primary Producers
  • Free-floating algae -- often called seaweed
    • Red algae
    • Green algae
    • Brown algae
  • Phytoplankton -- tiny, one-celled photosynthetic plankton like diatoms, dinoflagellates,
threats to oceans
Threats to Oceans
  • Steadily becoming polluted
  • Most pollution come from activities on land due to runoff
  • Over-fishing and certain fishing methods also destroying fish populations
  • Nets can drown or strangle animals that must return to the surface to breathe when they get caught in them
artic antartic ecosystems
Artic & Antartic Ecosystems
  • Artic Ocean gets nutrients from the surrounding land masses
  • Supports whales, seals, ocean birds, polar bears, and provide food for people
  • Antartic only continent never colonized by humans - used mainly for research
  • Only a few plants grow
  • Artic plankton feed the fish, whales, and penguins that live there