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Chapter 6 Ecology. Preserving The Animal Kingdom. Animals and Their Abiotic Environment. Habitat: includes all living and nonliving of the animals environment Tolerance Range: the range of values in which animals live

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Chapter 6 ecology

Chapter 6Ecology

Preserving The Animal Kingdom

Animals and their abiotic environment
Animals and Their Abiotic Environment

  • Habitat: includes all living and nonliving of the animals environment

  • Tolerance Range: the range of values in which animals live

  • Range of Optimum: Defines the conditions under which an animal is most successful

  • Limiting Factor: when factors necessary for an animal’s survival and reproduction in out of range

  • Taxis: when an animal orients itself to an abiotic factor


  • Heterotrophic

  • Autotrophic

  • Energy budget


  • Torpor

  • Hibervation

  • Winter sleep

  • Aetivation

Other abiotic factors

  • Include: moisture, light, geology, and soils.

  • The texture, amount of organic matter, fertility, and water holding ablity directly influence the number and kinds of animals living in or on the soil.


  • Populations are groups of individuals of the same species that occupy a given area at the same time and have unique attributes.

  • 2 important attributes involve the potential for population growth and the limits that the environment places on population growth.

Population growth

  • Exponential growth: the population increases by the same ratio per unit time.

  • Environmental resistance: the constraints that climate, food, space, and other environmental factors place on a population

  • Carrying capacity: the population size that a particular environment can support

  • Logistic population growth: growth curves assume a sigmiod, or flattened S shape

Population regulation

  • The conditions that an animal must meet to survive are unique for every species.

  • Density-independent factors: influence the number of animals in a population without regard to the number of individuals per unit space.

    • Ex. Weather conditions often limit population

  • Density-dependent factors: are more severe when population density is high (or sometimes very low) than they are a other densities.

Intraspecific competition

  • Intraspecific competition: competition aming members of the same species.

Interspecific interactions

  • Members of other species can affect all characteristics of a population.

  • Interspecific interactions include herbivory, predation, competition, coevolution, and smbiosis.

Herbivory and predation
Herbivory and Predation

  • Animala that feed on plants by croppig portions of the plant, but usually not killing the plant, are herbivores.

  • This conversion provides food for predators that feed by killing and eating other organisms.

Interspecific competition
Interspecific Competition

  • When members of different species compete for resources, one species may be forced to move or move or become extinct, or the two species may share the resource and coexist.


  • Occurs when species are competing for the same resource or during predator-prey interactions

  • Also occurs with flowering plants and pollinating animals.


  • Symbiosis: some of the best examples of adaptations arising through coevolution come from two different species living in continuing, intimate associations

  • Parasitism: a common form of symbiosis in which one organism lives in or on a second organism.

  • Commensalism: a symbiotic relationship in which one member of the relationship benefits, and the second is neither helped nor harmed.

  • Mutualism: a symbiotic relationship that benefits both members

Other interspecific adaptations
Other Interspecific Adaptations

  • Camouflage: occurs when an animal’s color patterns help hide the animal, or a developmental stage, from another animal.

  • Cryptic coloration: is a type of camouflage that occurs when an animal takes on color patterns in its environment to prevent the animal from being seen by other animals.

  • Countershading: is a kind of camouflage common in frog and toad eggs.

  • Aposematic coloration: warning patterns on animals

  • Mimicry: when a species resembles another species and gains porotection.


  • Community-all population living in an area

  • Ex: a stream community of rainbow trouts that helps controll the population of invertebrates

  • Dominant species: are responsible for establishing community characteristic.

  • Community diversity: a variety of animals in a community

The ecological niche
The Ecological Niche

  • Ecological niche includes all attributes of an animal’s lifestyle

  • Ex: where it looks for food, what it eats, where it nests & the condition of temp.

Community stability
Community Stability

  • Succession: the dominant members os the community change a community in predictable ways

  • Pioneer community: the first community to become established in an area

  • Seral stage: each successional stage

  • Sere: the entire successional sequence

  • Climax community: the final community

Trophic structure of ecology
Trophic structure of Ecology

  • Ecosystems: communities and their physical environment

  • Food Chain: the sequence of organisms through which energy moves in an ecosystem

  • Food webs: complex interconnected food chains

  • Trophic level: organisms grouped accorhing to the form of energy used.

    • Producers (autotrophs)

    • Consumers (heterotrophs)

Cycling within ecosystems
Cycling Within Ecosystems

  • Biogeochemical Cycles: matter moving through the ecosystem.

Ecological problems
Ecological Problems

  • Name some ecological problems.

Human population growth
Human Population Growth

  • Age structure: shows the proportion of a population in prereproductive, reproductive, and postreproductive classes.

  • Birthrates are falling world round due to more women in the work force and the AIDS epidemic.


  • Pollution is any detrimental change to an ecosystem.

  • Acid deposition: falling sulfuric acid made by combined sulfur dioxide and water.

  • Greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide released in burning fuels is accumulating in the atmosphere.

  • Biological magnification: the accumulation of matter in food webs

Resource depletion and biodiversity
Resource Depletion and Biodiversity

  • Biodiversity: the variety of living organisms in an ecosystem.