Ecology = the study of how organisms interact with one another and the non-living environment • Parts of the environment: Biosphere - Portion of the earth that supports life. http://stloe.most.go.th/html/lo_index/LOcanada1/102/images/L02_4.jpg
2 Types of Factors 1. Abiotic 2. Biotic • anything in the environment that is non-living • Examples: air, currents, temperature, moisture, light, chemicals, water… • anything in the environment that is living • Examples: animals, plants, bacteria…
Habitat • Area where an organism lives ( “address”). • Example: the habitat of a polar bear is the ice-covered arctic waters. www.greenpeace.org/raw/image
Niche • A living thing’s particular role in the environment (“occupation”). • “What does it eat?” “Where does it eat?” • Example: polar bears are seal-eating carnivores in the arctic. • Note: no two species can occupy the same niche!
Levels of Organization Organism Species Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere
Organism • Any individual thing that is living Organism Species Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere
Species • A group of organisms that can produce fertile offspring Organism Species Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=64220&rendTypeId
Population • A group of the same species in an area www.hiltonpond.org/images/MonarchCluster01.jpg Organism Species Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere
Community • The collection of interacting populations in a given area www.thedailygreen.com/cm/thedailygreen/images/UG/monarch-butterfly-lg.jpg Organism Species Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere
Ecosystem • A community and its physical surroundings • Open vs. Closed www.jaxshells.org/spi13.jpg Organism Species Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere
Ecosystem Organism Species Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere A community and its physical surroundings Open vs. Closed
Biosphere • The layer of the Earth that supports life (all of the ecosystems on the planet). • Bacteria have been found 16,400 feet below sea level and some birds are known to fly over Mt. Everest (the highest point on Earth)! Organism Species Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere
Warm-Ups 9/14 1. Which of the following factors are abiotic? Water current Algae Temperature Fish Salinity (salt concentration) Light 2. True or false? An organism’s niche is like its “address.” 3. Many populations of species and their physical surroundings are called a(n) __________.
Abstract hints: PREWRITING • Make an outline! Then research information that addresses the paper. • What is the issue? Learn about it. • What are the pros? (social, $, etc…) • What are the cons? (social, $, etc…)
Abstract hints: PREWRITING Look for sources with specific information • Don’t go searching for a single source with all the information you need • Make an outline of what you need first, then go hunting. • Example: If you need info on the positive financial impact of cloning, skim for sources that specifically discuss how much money cloning companies can make.
Living Together • Symbiosis = a relationship in which there is a close and permanent association among organisms of different species. • Three different kinds of symbioses: Mutualism = both species benefit from each other Examples: Lichens = Fungi & Algae Ostrich & Gazelle Commensalism = one species benefits and the other is not harmed. Examples: Remora & Shark Parasitism = one species benefits and the other is harmed (but not killed). Examples: ticks, tapeworms, leeches
Mutualism Ostrich and Gazelle maratriangle.wildlifedirect.org/.../dscf4402.JPG
Commensalism Shark and Remora bp.blogspot.com/.../s400/remora1.jpg
Commensalism Eyebrow mites
Parasitism You and a tick http://www.entomology.wisc.edu/diaglab/hilites/hilt5_7.html
Other kinds of interrelationships: • Inter-specific Competition = between two different populations Example: an owl and an eagle both want a rodent • Intra-specific Competition = is among the same species Example: two redwing blackbirds compete for mates, territory and/or food • Predation = predator/hunter eats prey/hunted Examples: a Venus fly trap eats insects or a Hawk eats a rabbit
Warm-Ups 9/15 1. What are mutualism, commensalism and parasitism all forms of? 2. True or false? Two bucks fighting over a doe is an example of inter-specific competition? 3. What type of symbiotic relationship would include moss growing on a tree?
Pick good sources Books in library Articles found through SIRS (filtered for you) Websites ending in .edu, .org, .gov Avoid using the first result from a Google search, or Wikipedia Interview people that work in the field related to your topic Abstract hints: PREWRITING
Keep track of sources while you are researching Make note cards Keep a list Use your student folders, gaggle account, digital locker… Abstract hints: PREWRITING
What is the ultimate source of energy in all ecosystems? • SUN - …not considered a trophic (living) level • Feeding Levels A) Producers (Autotrophs = “self-feeder”): Plants How do they make own food supply? • Light energy transformed to Chemical energy by photosynthesis. B) Consumers (Heterotroph = “other-feeder”): Animals 1st order: eats producers 2nd order: eats 1st order consumer 3rd order: eats 2nd order consumer
TYPES OF CONSUMERS • Herbivore: eats only plants • Carnivore: eats only animals • Omnivore: eats both plants and animals • Saprovore: eats dead organisms (cleaners) Scavengers: eat dead things (e.g. crows) Decomposers: fungus/maggots/bacteria
FOOD CHAIN • A food chain = direct feeding links in the environment. • A chain of organisms in which each link feeds on the one ahead and is eaten by the one behind. • Shows transfer of matter and energy. neuromanagement.files.wordpress.com/2009/
Trophic levels • Organisms in a food chain that represent a feeding step in the passage of energy and materials through an ecosystem. • Place the following organisms in their appropriate trophic levels: Snake, Grass, Hawk, Mouse • 1sttrophic level = Producer - • 2ndtrophic level = 1st Order Consumer - • 3rdtrophic level = 2nd Order Consumer - • 4thtrophic level = 3rd Order Consumer -
1sttrophic level = Producer - GRASS www.momgoesgreen.com/wp-content//grass.jpg
2ndtrophic level = 1st Order Consumer - MOUSE http://www.australianfauna.com/images/pilligamouse.jpg
3rdtrophic level =2nd Order Consumer - SNAKE www.lucis.me.uk/snake_1.jpg
4thtrophic level = 3rd Order Consumer - HAWK www.thevillager.com/vil_92/hawk.gif
ENERGY • 90 % of all the energy that passes from one organism to another is lost through heat/use • Therefore, only 10% is passed on after the material is digested.
FOOD WEB = All the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in the ecosystem (a tangle of many food chains). pg 53 Usually food webs are based on a specific community. ridge.icu.ac.jp/.../ecosystem-jpgs/food-web.jpg
Thought o’ the day: Imagine you are in a roped-off section of the forest. All the producers, herbivores, and consumers are put into piles. Which do you think will be the largest? Why?
Create a food web below using the following organisms in an ecosystem: bee, deer, beetle, squirrel, rabbit, mouse, blackberries, snake, owl, grass, bear, wolf, oak tree, sparrow.
Warm-Ups 9/16 1. What is the term for the interrelationships of populations in an area? 2. What is the ultimate source of energy in all ecosystems? 3. Animals are heterotrophs and plants are ________.
Check MANY sources! Do multiple sources say the same thing? Skim a variety of articles/books/websites first, then go diving deeper into specific sources Abstract hints: PREWRITING
Warm-Ups 9/17 1. What do saprovores eat? What are the two types of saprovores? 2. Which of the following organisms is a producer? Grass Sun Nathan Lane Mushroom 3. How much energy is lost by heat/use by each trophic level? 4. What is ecology?