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Schizophrenia. Xavier Fung Miriam Hjertnes. What is Schizophrenia?. Thought, mood and anxiety disorder Neurotransmitter and messaging centre disturbed Affects ones perception of reality 12000 – 16000 in Norway 600 – 800 per year approxiamately Rough estimate 10% suicide rate.

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schizophrenia

Schizophrenia

Xavier Fung

Miriam Hjertnes

what is schizophrenia
What is Schizophrenia?
  • Thought, mood and anxiety disorder
  • Neurotransmitter and messaging centre disturbed
  • Affects ones perception of

reality

  • 12000 – 16000 in Norway
  • 600 – 800 per year

approxiamately

  • Rough estimate
  • 10% suicide rate
types
Types
  • Paranoid type – suspicions, paranoia and relationship difficulties
  • Disorganized type – Disorder and Flat effect. Occurs earlier and gradually, disorganized speech and behavior, trouble taking care of themselves
  • Catatonic type – Disturbance in movement and decreased motor activity
symptoms
Symptoms
  • Positive symptoms – distort and exaggerated sights, sounds, thoughts and behavior - Beliefs, hallucinations, bizzare behavior and disorganized sppech, thoughts and movement
  • Negative symptoms – lack of motion or interest and flat effect, personal hygeine - Alogia and lack of speech, Avoltion andAnhedonia, posturing
causes genetic and environmental factors
Causes – genetic and environmental factors
  • Genetic factors – only influencing
  • First degree relative  10%
  • General population  1%
  • 60%  no family history
  • Environmental factors – trigger
  • High levels of stress  examples
  • Cortisol concentration increase
brain structure
Brain structure
  • 40 – 50% Schizophrenics have abnormalities
  • Enlarged brain ventricles
  • Abnormalties: temporal lobe, hippocampus, amygdala, frontal lobe
  • Two main neurotransmitters– dopamine, glutamate
dopamine
Dopamine
  • Movement and thoughts, reward, feelings and pleasure
  • High levels = psychotic and paranoid thinking
  • Larger amount of dopamine receptors in schizophrenics
  • Overactive dopamine system
  • Amphetamine induces dopamine and symptoms of schizophrenia
glutamate
Glutamate
  • Learning and formation and encoding of memory
  • Inhibition of glutamate receptorscause symptoms of schizophrenia e.g. PCP and ketamine
  • High levels of glutamate inhibitors  thought disorders
  • Glutamate receptors located throughout the brain  widespread cortical dysfunction
  • Located in brain circuits regulating dopamine release  dopamine concentration is linked to glutamate activity
treatment
Treatment
  • 25% recovery
  • Medication + psychosocial treatment + regular examination
  • Exercise of Cognitive and Social skills
  • Men diagnosed earlier and tend to have have greater social dysfunction
  • Encouragement and help controlling of symptoms
psychotherapy
Psychotherapy
  • Learning required social skills
  • Supporting goals and activities
  • Regaining confidence – ordinary tasks
  • Group therapy + medication
  • Family therapy reduces relapse rate below 10%
medications
Medications
  • Antidepressant
  • Antipsychotic
  • Anti-anxiety
  • Challenges

-cease taking medication

antipsychotics
Antipsychotics
  • Normalise biochemical imbalances, reduce relapse
  • Two types
  • Traditional Antipsychotics – hallucinations, delusions and confusions – block dopamine receptors
  • New antipsychotics – may work on both serotonin and deopamine receptors, fewer side effects and more effective
  • Atypical antipsychotics- Stabalization of mood, decreases frequency and intensity of mood swings – side effects

Used as priority medication

statistics
Statistics
  • 1% of world
  • Roughly 1.5million will be diagnosed every year
  • Prevlance rate : 1.1% of the population over 18
  • 7.2 people out of 1000
  • 51 million worldwide at any one time
sources
Sources

http://www.humanillnesses.com/Behavioral-Health-Ob-Sea/Schizophrenia.html#b

http://www.jamesdisabilitylaw.com/schizophrenia.htm

http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/schizophrenia/en/

http://www.schizophrenia.com/szfacts.htm 5

http://www.physio-pedia.com/Schizophrenia

http://www.fhi.no/eway/default.aspx?pid=233&trg=MainLeft_5565&MainArea_5661=5565:0:15,2343:1:0:0:::0:0&MainLeft_5565=5544:61140::1:5569:9:::0:0

http://nhi.no/sykdommer/psykisk-helse/schizofreni/schizofreni-oversikt-3090.html?page=4

http://www.medicinenet.com/schizophrenia/page4.htm#how_is_schizophrenia_diagnosed