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Schizophrenia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Schizophrenia. Definition Psychotic disorder Thought Disorder Loose associations “Split” from reality NOT split or multiple personality. Symptoms of Schizophrenia. Positive Symptoms Loose associations Word salad Delusions Hallucinations Negative Symptoms Poverty of speech content

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Psychotic disorder

Thought Disorder

Loose associations

“Split” from reality

NOT split or multiple personality

Symptoms of schizophrenia
Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Positive Symptoms

Loose associations

Word salad



Negative Symptoms

Poverty of speech content

Flat or blunted affect

Avolition or apathy


Subtypes of schizophrenia
Subtypes of Schizophrenia






Paranoid subtype
Paranoid Subtype

Intact cognitive skills and affect

Do not show disorganized behavior

Hallucinations and delusions – grandeur or persecution

The best prognosis of all types of schizophrenia

Disorganized subtype
Disorganized Subtype

Marked disruptions in speech and behavior

Flat or inappropriate affect

Hallucinations and delusions – tend to be fragmented

Develops early, tends to be chronic, lacks remissions

Catatonic subtype
Catatonic Subtype

Show unusual motor responses and odd mannerisms

Examples include echolalia and echopraxia

Tends to be severe and quite rare

Additional subtypes
Additional Subtypes

  • Undifferentiated type

    • Catch all category

    • Major symptoms of schizophrenia

    • Fail to meet criteria for another type

  • Residual type

    • One past episode of schizophrenia

    • Continue to display less extreme residual symptoms

Biological aspects
Biological Aspects

Runs in Families

Increased Risk Based on Genetic Relatedness

Biological aspects1
Biological Aspects

Search for Marker Genes

Still inconclusive

Likely involves multiple genes

Smooth Pursuit Eye Tracking

Tracking deficit in persons with schizophrenia, including their relatives

Brain Structure and Functioning

Enlarged ventricles and reduced tissue volume


Biological aspects2
Biological Aspects

Dopamine Hypothesis

Drugs that increase dopamine (agonists), result in schizophrenic-like behavior (e.g., amphetamines)

Drugs that decrease dopamine (antagonists), reduce schizophrenic-like behavior

Considered too simplistic (multiple NTs involved)

Psychosocial influences
Psychosocial Influences

The Role of Stress

Diathesis-Stress Model

Also seems related to relapse (not just onset)

Family Interactions

Communication patterns

High expressed emotion associated with relapse

Psychological factors seem relatively small

Socioeconomic status and schizophrenia
Socioeconomic Status and Schizophrenia

Treatment of schizophrenia
Treatment of Schizophrenia

Seldom Results in Complete Recovery

Early Methods

Insulin Coma Therapy



Biological Treatments (Current)

Neuroleptics (Major Tranquilizers)

Haldol, Thorozine, others

Clozaril, Risperdal, Zyprexa, others

Treatment of schizophrenia1
Treatment of Schizophrenia

Biological Treatment Issues

Major (Social) Reform in Treatment

Revolving Door Process

Trial and Error

Extrapyramidal Side Effects

Tardive Dyskinesia

Address Positive Symptoms Only

Medication Compliance Problems

Psychosocial treatment
Psychosocial Treatment

Psychosocial Approaches

Behavioral (i.e., token economies) on inpatient units

Community care programs

Social and living skills training

Behavioral family therapy

Vocational rehabilitation

Facilitate Medication Compliance

Myths about schizophrenia
Myths About Schizophrenia

People with schizophrenia have “split personalities.”

People with schizophrenia are intellectually disabled

People with schizophrenia are dangerous

People with schizophrenia are addicted to their drugs

Other psychotic disorders
Other Psychotic Disorders

Brief Psychotic Disorder

Psychotic symptoms for a few weeks

Schizophreniform Disorder

Schizophrenic symptoms for a few months

Schizoaffective Disorder

Symptoms of schizophrenia and a mood disorder independent of each other

Other psychotic disorders1
Other Psychotic Disorders

  • Delusional disorder

    • Delusions without hallucinations or most other schizophrenic symptoms

    • Types of delusions

      • Erotomanic

      • Grandiose

      • Jealous

      • Persecutory

      • Somatic

Other psychotic disorders2
Other Psychotic Disorders

  • Folie a Deux

    • Shared Psychotic Disorder