notes 3 2b early civil rights actions n.
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Notes 3.2B: Early Civil Rights Actions. I. Timeline. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) NAACP starts (1909) CORE begins (1942) Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) SCLC Created (1957) Little Rock Crisis (1957) Civil Rights Act of 1957 First Sit-in at Woolworths (1959)

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i timeline
I. Timeline
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • NAACP starts (1909)
  • CORE begins (1942)
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)
  • SCLC Created (1957)
  • Little Rock Crisis (1957)
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957
  • First Sit-in at Woolworths (1959)
  • SNCC breaks from SCLC (1960)
  • Freedom Rides (1961)
  • March on Washington – “I have a dream” speech (1963)
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Selma Voting March (1965)
  • Bloody Sunday (1965)
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965
ii before the movement
II. Before the Movement
  • Plessy v Ferguson had created the precedent “separate but equal”
  • Jim Crow Laws existed in the South
    • Legal segregation
    • Voting Laws: poll taxes, grandfather clauses, literacy tests
  • Segregation existed by law or tradition in all of the US
iii changes begin
III. Changes begin
  • The Great Migration- African-Americans move to northern cities and gain more freedoms, including voting rights. This leads to political power.
  • NAACP fights for legal rights in the court system
    • Several early successes
    • Turning point for the movement: Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
  • CORE attempts to force desegregation through shaming business owners in northern areas
    • Sit-ins beginning in 1942
    • Later, they organize the Freedom Rides (1961)
iv desegregation actions
IV. Desegregation Actions
  • Schools
    • Brown v. Board of Education
    • Little Rock Crisis
    • James Meredith and the University of Mississippi
  • Voting
    • 1957 SCLC registers 2 million voters
    • Voter Education Project (SNCC) – in 1964, 3 voter registration workers are killed
    • Selma March
    • Bloody Sunday
    • Voting Rights Act of 1965
iv desegregation actions cont
IV. Desegregation Actions (cont)
  • Other Areas
    • Desegregation of the military (1950)
    • Montgomery Bus Boycott
    • Civil Rights Act of 1957
    • First Sit-In in 1959 at Woolworths Lunch Counter
    • Freedom Rides in summer of 1961
    • March on Washington (1963)
    • Birmingham Protests (Letter from Birmingham Jail) in 1963
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
v shift in focus and action
V. Shift in focus and action
  • Through the 1950s and early 1960s, the Civil Rights Movement focused on non-violent civil disobedience to promote change.
  • In the mid-1960s the focus of change became a desire for full economic and social equality.
  • This shift in focus gave rise to new groups and leaders, with a different view on how to gain equality. These new groups felt the earlier groups had settled for slow change and they were not willing to settle. The movement shifted to more militant means of protest.