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Chapter 1: What is Psychology and what are its roots?. What is Psychology?. Psychology derives its roots from ancient Greek culture. It literally means “the study of the mind.” According to modern day psychologists, the science of behavior and mental processes is called psychology.

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Chapter 1: What is Psychology and what are its roots?


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    1. Chapter 1: What is Psychology and what are its roots?

    2. What is Psychology? • Psychology derives its roots from ancient Greek culture. It literally means “the study of the mind.” • According to modern day psychologists, the science of behavior and mental processes is called psychology.

    3. Greeks and Philosophy/Psychology 1. The Greek philosophers Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato are credited with the inception of psychology. 2. These philosophers developed two practical theories concerning psychology: a) Emotions can distort behavior. b) And, our perceptions are merely interpretation of the external world. 3. The Greeks also developed some bizarre notions regarding psychology: a) Emotions flow from the heart, liver, and spleen. • b) Mental disorders can be caused by excessive bile.

    4. History of Psych • 4. When the medieval Roman Catholic Church ruled over Europe, they began to preach that the mind was an “unsolvable mystery.” It operates completely outside the natural laws that govern this world. • 5. In the 17th century, French philosopher Rene Decartes asserted that emotional activity comes from your central nervous system, and this system is triggered by brain waves.

    5. Background • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaKLrqxC70c&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active • 1:04

    6. Early Perspectives • Structuralism—looks to discover the basic structures of the mind and how they influence behavior. • This idea was pursued by Wilhelm Wundt, and he built the first experimental psych lab. • Wundt used the practice of introspection to study the elements of the conscious mind.

    7. Introspection – the process of reporting on one’s own inner conscious experience

    8. Introspection • Through introspection, subjects were given an experience and were required to report on his/her thoughts about it. • Most experiences analyzed were perceptual or sensory. This experiment is sensory.

    9. Early Perspectives • Functionalism—took structuralism further in order to determine how consciousness could help us deal with problems of everyday life. • John Dewey and William James pursued functionalism as a means to see how adaptive behavior can lead to mental disorders.

    10. Structuralism and Functionalism • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SW6nm69Z_IE&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active • 1:11

    11. 5 Major Psychological Perspectives • Biological -inherit some behaviors from your parents -measure function of nervous and endocrine (hormone) system -strong roots in medicine and biological science

    12. 5 Major Psychological Perspectives 2. Psychodynamic • Humans are largely motivated by our unconscious needs, desires, memories and conflicts • A big supporter of this viewpoint is Sigmund Freud

    13. 5 Major Psychological Perspectives 3) Cognitive -our actions are influenced by the way we process information

    14. 5 Major Psychological Perspectives 4) Behavioral • Measures people’s actions in terms of direct observation • They do not look to examine the inner reasons for actions • Most strongly influenced by B.F. Skinner

    15. 5 Major Psychological Perspectives 5) Humanistic • Actions are influenced by self- worth and our need for growth and fulfillment • Emphasizes the positive side of human behavior • Led by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

    16. Practice! • Sort the cards into the following categories: 1) Perspective/Picture 2) View of Human Nature 3) What determines behavior 4) Focus of Study

    17. Perspective View of Human Nature What determines behavior Focus of Study

    18. Perspective View of Human Nature What determines behavior Focus of Study

    19. Perspective View of Human Nature What determines behavior Focus of Study

    20. View of Human Nature Perspective Focus of Study What determines behavior

    21. More Practice • Each table should choose a celebrity or someone that you all know. • Pick three different psychological perspectives that would explain that person’s behavior.

    22. How do Psychologist do their work? • Psychologists use a process called the scientific method in order to develop their knowledge of mental disorders and behaviors.

    23. Types of Research • Experimental: • Research where the relationship between two or more variables are being tested • The experimenter deliberately manipulates one condition (independent variable) to measure a change

    24. Scientific Experiment • An exercise physiologist counsels his clients to exercise in the morning rather than at night to facilitate weight loss. Design an experiment to test whether this is the correct advice.

    25. Scientific Experiment • Do you need to define any terms for the experiment?

    26. Scientific Experiment • What is your independent variable?

    27. Scientific Experiment • What is your independent variable? • Whether the client exercises in the am or pm

    28. Scientific Experiment • What is your dependent variable?

    29. Scientific Experiment • What is your dependent variable? • weight loss

    30. Scientific Experiment • How will you select and assign your subjects to a group?

    31. Scientific Experiment • How will you select and assign your subjects to a group? • Gender • Age • Current weight • Body fat composition

    32. Scientific Experiment • What treatment will the experimental group be given?

    33. Scientific Experiment • What treatment will the experimental group be given? • exercise in the am

    34. Scientific Experiment • What treatment will the control group be given?

    35. Scientific Experiment • What treatment will the control group be given? • Workout anytime throughout the day

    36. Scientific Experiment • What controls will you use in your experiment?

    37. Scientific Experiment • What controls will you use in your experiment? • The group of people in the experiment • Weighing participants at the same time everyday

    38. Scientific Experiment • Is there anything you should control but aren’t sure how?

    39. Scientific Experiment • Is there anything you should control but aren’t sure how? • Diet of participants • What workouts they are doing • How much sleep participants get

    40. Your turn • Get into groups of 3-4 to design your own experiment

    41. Types of Research • Correlation Studies • Examiner studies relationship between multiple variables without specifically manipulating variable • They assess if there is a “correlation” between variables • Ex: The more TV you watch decreases your life span • Problems?

    42. Types of Research • Surveys: • Used within correlation studies • People are asked their attitudes, thoughts, beliefs, and are supposed to reflect the larger population • Ex: Voting surveys • Problems?

    43. Types of Research • Naturalistic Observation: • Form of correlation research • Involves behavioral assessment of people or animals in their home surroundings • EX: Jane Goodall – Chimpanzee culture • Problems?

    44. Types of Research • Case Studies: • An intensive investigation of an individual or small group • Often include psychological testing • EX: Mass homicide/Terrorism • Problems?