Sparta and Athens. Warm Up!!!. Before our study on the city-states of Sparta and Athens, please answer the following questions in complete sentences: How did mountains affect the development of Ancient Greece? Define the two governments ‘oligarchy’ and ‘direct democracy’.
As wealth spread through increased trade and militaries emerged into more effective forces, power shifted to small groups of citizens in some (oligarchy - Sparta) and to the citizens in others (democracy - Athens).
Cleisthenes continued reforms in 508 BCE, establishing the first true democracy-“the father of Athenian democracy.”
After the wars, fearing another Persian invasion, Athens created the DelianLeague - a defensive alliance of several Greek city-states.
In response to the creation of the Delian League, Sparta created its own alliance - the Peloponnesian League.
Plague struck the city in 430 BCE killing between 1/3 and 2/3 of the population, including Pericles.