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Sparta and Athens. Warm Up!!!. Before our study on the city-states of Sparta and Athens, please answer the following questions in complete sentences: How did mountains affect the development of Ancient Greece? Define the two governments ‘oligarchy’ and ‘direct democracy’.

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warm up
Warm Up!!!
  • Before our study on the city-states of Sparta and Athens, please answer the following questions in complete sentences:
    • How did mountains affect the development of Ancient Greece?
    • Define the two governments ‘oligarchy’ and ‘direct democracy’.
    • Briefly, explain which government YOU think is more efficient, oligarchy or direct democracy.
did you know
Did You Know?!?
  • John Quincy Adams, sixth president of the United States, loved to skinny dip in the Potomac River.
  • Rats multiply so quickly that in 18 months, two rats could have 1 million descendents.
  • An Astronaut can be up to 2 inches taller returning from space. The cartilage disks in the spine expand in the absence of gravity.
  • In Ancient Egypt, priests plucked every hair from their bodies, including their eyebrows and eyelashes.
emergence of democracy
Emergence of Democracy
  • City states controlled primarily by monarchs between 1000 and 700 BCE.
  • Power then shifted to men who owned land and had money - nobility/aristocracy.
    • Greedy, not concerned with the welfare of lower classes.
slide5

As wealth spread through increased trade and militaries emerged into more effective forces, power shifted to small groups of citizens in some (oligarchy - Sparta) and to the citizens in others (democracy - Athens).

  • Slaves played a major role in Greek city-states.
    • Worked as builders, miners, craft producers, farmers, and house servants.
emergence of democracy cont
Emergence of Democracy (cont.)
    • Mainly became slaves when captured during wars.
  • Among Greek city-states, Thebes and Corinth were largest, but Sparta and Athens were the most powerful.
sparta
Sparta
  • Along with Athens, one of the strongest Greek city-states.
  • Located in Southern Greece.
  • Descended from the Dorians.
  • The city was landlocked (no access to water), forced to depend on a large slave population and agriculture for wealth.
slide8

Created a powerful military state

    • Conquered the Messenians in 725 BCE and forced them to become helots.
      • Forced to live as peasants on their land and give half of their crops to the Spartan government each year.
spartan government
Spartan Government
  • Spartan government consisted of two groups:
    • Assembly:
      • All free adult males
      • Elected officials and voted on major issues
    • Council of Elders:
      • Proposed laws that the assembly voted on
      • Included Ephors - Five individuals carried out the laws and controlled education and served as judges, the most powerful people in Sparta
      • Two kings controlled the military.
spartan society
Spartan Society
  • Rigid social structure with several groups:
    • Citizens - those who descended from original inhabitants
      • Ruling families who owned land.
    • Noncitizens - free individuals who worked in commerce and industry.
slide11

Helots - Unfree individuals who farmed the land for the state.

    • Slaves - household servants and those who worked for warriors
  • Had the most powerful military between 600 and 371 BCE.
  • Spartans had few individual liberties.
spartan society1
Spartan Society
  • Men’s life centered around military training.
    • Boys left home at the age of seven, did not leave the military barracks until the age of 30, and retired at the age of 60.
    • Goal was to create a dominate military.
spartan society cont d
Spartan Society, Cont’d
    • This focus on the military led to a lack of arts and discouraging individualism, the focus was on Sparta.
  • Women managed family estates while men served Sparta.
    • Unlike other Greek city-states, women were visible (but could not vote).
did you know pt 2
Did YOU Know?!?, Pt. 2
  • How does a shark find fish? It can hear their hearts beating!
  • Pregnant women can smell up to 2,000 times better than when they aren’t.
  • Some toothpastes and deodorants contain the same chemicals found in antifreeze.
  • In 21 U.S. states, WALMART is the single largest employer!
athens
Athens
  • Located in eastern Greece, north of Sparta.
  • Had access to the Aegean Sea and established wealth based on trade.
    • Developed a dominate navy to protect trade
slide16

Developed a limited democracy - rule by the people.

    • Citizens played a role in decisions.
    • Citizens = free adult males
    • Women, slaves, foreigners were not citizens and had few rights.
athenian society
Athenian Society
  • Slaves constituted 1/3 of the population - worked in mines, farms, and as house servants.
  • Women managed the household (raised children, wove clothing, cooked, etc.).
  • Common clashes between aristocrats and common people led to a shift towards democracy.
      • Peasants demanded a written code of laws.
on the road to democracy
On the Road to Democracy
  • Draco (a judge) wrote the first code of laws around 622 BCE that favored the upper classes.
  • In 594, Solon wrote a code that did the following:
    • Outlawed slave debt.
    • Allowed more citizens to participate and debate policies in the Athenian assembly.
    • Allowed citizens to bring charges against wrongdoers.
    • Encouraged the export of grapes and olives, which started an overseas trade that was profitable.
    • Limited the power of the nobility.
on the road to democracy cont
On the Road to Democracy (cont.)
  • General Pisistratus took over as a tyrant in 546 BCE by gaining the support of the poor:
    • Provided money to help peasants to buy farm equipment.
    • Taxed agriculture production.
    • Launched building program to employ the poor.
slide20

Cleisthenes continued reforms in 508 BCE, establishing the first true democracy-“the father of Athenian democracy.”

    • Took away power from the nobility in the assembly -more equality.
    • Allowed all citizens to submit laws for debate in the Athenian Assembly.
    • Created the Council of 500, which administered the laws and performed the everyday business of government.
    • Established a jury system for court trials.
warm up1
Warm Up!!
  • In complete sentences, please answer the following questions:
    • What are the two city-states that we covered last class and what governments do they practice?
    • What are the Spartans most remembered for?
    • Explain the ideas of Solon. Who did he try to help?
did you know1
Did YOU Know?!?
  • Billy goats urinate on their own heads to smell more attractive to females.
  • Following Thanksgiving, Super Bowl Sunday is the largest food consumption day in the United States.
  • There is a town in Texas called ‘Ding Dong’.
major events
Major Events

Persian Wars

  • First Persian War:
    • Around 500 BCE the Ionian Greek colonies rebelled against the Persians.
    • The Greek city-states united against the Persian King Darius.
    • In 492 BCE, Darius attacked Greece and was eventually defeated by Athens at the Battle of marathon in 490 BCE.
major events cont
Major Events (cont.)
  • Second Persian War:
    • Darius’ successor, Xerxes, invaded Greece in 480 BCE with a superior army and navy.
    • 300 Spartan soldiers led by King Leonidas I held off Persians at the Battle of Thermopylae.
slide26

Athenians destroyed the Persian navy at the Battle of Salamis.

  • Athenians and Spartans joined together to defeat the Persians and end the war at the Battle of Platea.
slide27

After the wars, fearing another Persian invasion, Athens created the DelianLeague - a defensive alliance of several Greek city-states.

    • Did not include Sparta so they could lead it.
    • Led to tensions between the two.
slide28

In response to the creation of the Delian League, Sparta created its own alliance - the Peloponnesian League.

did you know2
Did YOU Know?!?
  • The Average American eats at McDonalds more than 1,800 times in their life.
  • The average person spends three years of his or her life on a toilet.
  • Banging your head against the wall uses 150 calories per hour.
slide30

Golden Age

  • Athens during the reign of Pericles - also known as the Age of Pericles between 461 and 429 BCE.
  • A period when drama, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, architecture, and science peaked in Athens.
slide31

Pericles had three goals for Athens:

    • Strengthen Athenian democracy - expand the number of officials and allow people to rule directly, not through representatives (direct democracy).
    • Hold and strengthen Athens’ empire - increased the size and strength of the navy.
    • Rebuild Athens after the Persian Wars and glorify it - had the Parthenon rebuilt.
slide32

Peloponnesian War

  • A rivalry emerged between Athens and Sparta.
  • Sparta declared war on Athens in 431 BCE as Athens continued to increase its power.
  • While Athens had the best navy, Sparta had the best army.
  • Athens attempted to avoid fighting the advancing Spartan armies on land by pulling people from the countryside behind the city walls.
slide33

Plague struck the city in 430 BCE killing between 1/3 and 2/3 of the population, including Pericles.

  • Forced to surrender in 404 BCE.
  • The wars left Greece devastated and all city-states seriously weakened.
    • Athens lost its empire, power, and wealth and people questioned the democratic government.
    • Greece was left vulnerable to attack from outsiders.
    • Slowed the advancement of Greek culture.