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Sparta and Athens. Tyrants Rule. Common people are very unhappy in Greece Farmers Lost lands when they couldn’t pay off loans and interest to the nobles Some had to sell themselves into slavery All lost citizenship when they lost their land Merchants and Artisans

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tyrants rule
Tyrants Rule
  • Common people are very unhappy in Greece
  • Farmers
    • Lost lands when they couldn’t pay off loans and interest to the nobles
    • Some had to sell themselves into slavery
    • All lost citizenship when they lost their land
  • Merchants and Artisans
    • Many wealthy from increased trade
    • Couldn’t participate in government didn’t own land
tyrants
Tyrants
  • Supported for the following reasons
    • Merchants wanted to be in government, tyrants promised to include them
    • Hoplites- mostly small farmers with huge debts
    • Tyrants built new markets , temples and walls to protect the citizens
  • Ruled for a small time, promises don’t come true , people want more participation in government
  • City states become oligarchies or democracies
who are the spartans
Who are the Spartans
  • Descendants of the Dorians who invaded the Peloponnesus
  • Militaristic society- proud to serve and die for their city-state. Very disciplined society.
  • Conquered all neighbors and enslaved them(helots)
  • Afraid Helots would rebel, so they firmly controlled the people of Sparta
military service
Military service
  • Boys taken away at age 7
  • Treated harshly to toughen them up
  • Age 20 – men enter regular army for 10 years
  • Age 30 – return home, but continue training and fighting until age 60
  • All would die before they would surrender
spartan women
Spartan Women
  • Trained in sports ; running, wrestling and throwing javelin
  • Kept fit to become healthy mothers
  • Wives were at home while men trained in military
  • Women of Sparta had much more freedom than other Greek women
spartan government
Spartan Government
  • 2 kings who headed the Council of Elders
  • Council of elders- 28 citizens over the age of 60
    • Presented laws to the assembly
  • Assembly – all men over the age of 30
    • Voted on laws presented by the council
    • 5 Ephors were chosen from the assembly
      • Enforced laws
      • Managed tax collection
spartan control
Spartan control
  • To keep anyone from questioning the Spartan way they:
    • Restricted foreign visitors
    • Banned outside travel, except for military reasons
    • Discouraged citizens from studying the arts or literature
athens
Athens
  • Education was very important
    • boys had one teacher for reading, writing, and arithmetic
    • 2nd teacher for sports
    • 3rd teacher for singing and playing the lyre
    • This created well rounded Athenians with good minds and bodies
    • Girls- stayed at home and were taught by mothers to spin, weave and cook
    • Only wealthy learned to read, write and play lyre
athenian government oligarchy to democracy
Athenian Government Oligarchy to Democracy
  • 600 B.C.
    • Land owning nobles seized power from the kings
    • Nobles were the ruling class and formed an Assembly, but it had few powers
    • Athenians began to rebel – farmers owed money, some sold themselves into slavery
    • Demanded an end to debts and land for the poor
    • One trusted man- Solon comes to power
solon s rule
Solon’ s Rule
  • Cancelled all farmers debts
  • Freed those in slavery
  • Allowed all male citizens to participate in Assembly and law courts
  • Council of 400 wealthy citizens wrote laws, but Assembly must approve them
  • After his rule 30 years of turmoil
564 b c peisistratus
564 B.C. Peisistratus
  • Won support of poor and farmers
  • Divided large estates among landless farmers
  • Loaned money to poor people
  • Gave poor jobs building temples and public works
508 b c cleisthenes
508 B.C. Cleisthenes
  • Reorganized the Assembly to play a governing role
  • All male citizens belonged to the Assembly
  • Assembly could debate, hear court cases and appoint army generals
cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
  • Council of 500 citizens
    • Proposed laws
    • Dealt with foreign countries
    • Oversaw the Treasury
    • Council was chosen each year by a lottery
  • Women, foreign born men and slaves were still excluded from government