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TQM . Quality . Lecturer : Kanjana Thongsanit tkanjana@su.ac.th. Define “Quality”. The Transcendent Approach Barbara Tuchman’s(1980) definition “a condition of excellence implying fine quality as distinct from poor quality …”. Define “Quality”.

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Lecturer : KanjanaThongsanit


Define quality
Define “Quality”

  • The Transcendent Approach

    Barbara Tuchman’s(1980) definition

    “a condition of excellence implying fine quality as distinct from poor quality …”

Define quality1
Define “Quality”

  • The Product-based Approach identifies specific features or attributes that can be measured to indicate higher quality.

    For example,

    Leather upholstery for car seats is considered higher quality than vinyl.

Define quality2
Define “Quality”

  • The User-based Approach

    The product or service that best satisfies the user is the higher quality product.

    Jurandefined --- Fitness for use

Define quality3
Define “Quality”

  • The Manufacturing-based Approach

    The more closely manufacturing can conform to those requirements, the better the quality of the product.


    Precision +/- ½ inch & Precision +/- 1/10 inch

    This definition has the advantages of providing objectively measurable quality standards and of reducing the costs of quality.

Define quality4
Define “Quality”

  • The Value-based Approach

    Garvin(1988) argued for an understanding of the element of quality as perceived by the user.

    The eight dimensions is defined

    - Performance - Durability

    - Features - Serviceability

    - Reliability - Aesthetics

    - Conformance - Perceived quality

Define quality5
Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Performance

    • The primary operating characteristic of the product or service.

- The number of rooms

- Size

- The number of bathrooms

Define quality6
Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Features

    • The additional characteristics


      - Deleaded ink for newspapers

Define quality7
Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Reliability of a product

    - Gavin states that reliability is “more relevant to durable goods”

    e.g. people buy services that guarantee mail delivery.

Define quality8
Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Conformance

    • Product and service meets the specified standards.

      “ The process that has more parts meeting the target requirement is better than one that does not ”

Define quality9
Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Durability

    • The length of a product’s life

How many hours the bulb will be replaced ?

Define quality10
Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Serviceability

    • The speed & service  response time

How to measure

serviceability ?

Define quality11
Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Aesthetics (subjective dimensions)

    • The individual ’s personal preference

    • The ways an individual response to the look, feel, sound, taste and smell.

e.g. better sounding stereo speakers would be

considered higher quality

Define quality12
Define “Quality”

The eight dimensions

  • Perceived quality (subjective dimensions)

    • Indirect measures

      e.g. You know good work by his tools.

      Brand name

In class 1
In class 1

  • Pick up a product or service.

  • Which of eight quality dimensions listed by Garvin are used to evaluate the product?

    20 groups

    1-10 product

    11-20 Service

Quality gurus
Quality Gurus

  • Deming

    • The first American to introduce quality principles to the Japanese.

    • Deming learned the basic concepts of Statistical Quality Control from Shewhart.


  • The Japanese Union of Scientist and Engineering (JUSE) used the money from registration fees to establish the Deming Prize.


  • Continual improvement

    • Deming characterized these causes as “common” and “special”

      “common cause” - poor product design

      - un comfortable working condition

      “special causes” - specific to a situation

      e.g. Poor incoming materials

      Deming proposed to use process control charts to discriminate between the two types of causes.


  • He arrived in Japan four years after Deming

  • Juran expressed his approach to quality in form of the quality trilogy.

  • 3 Basic Processes

    • Quality planning

    • Quality control

    • Quality improvement


  • Quality Planning

    • First identifying the customer

      anyone impacted by the process.

      Internal customer and External customer


  • Quality Planning

    • Determining the customer needs and establish quality goals

    • Process design

  • Quality Control

    • The critical elements had to be identified and measures

    • The method of measurement had to be defined

    • The actual performance & standard

    • Take action on the difference


  • Quality Improvement

    • Proving the need for improve and establishing specific improvement project

    • Team had to be organized to guide the project

    • Discover the causes

    • Provide remedies

    • Develop the mechanism to control the new process


  • Conformance Costs

    • Prevention Costs – training, quality circle,

    • Appraisal Costs - cost associated with measuring and evaluating the product or service quality

  • Conformance Costs

    • Internal Failure Costs – scrap, rework

    • External Failure Costs – direct and indirect cost e.g. labor and travel to investigate the customer complaints


  • Argued that zero defects was a desirable and achievable goal.

  • Defined quality as conformance to requirement

  • He insisted that the way to achieve zero defects was to improve prevention techniques.


  • Armand Feigenbaum developed the concept of Total Quality Control.

  • He feels that the quality philosophy extends beyond the factory floor (including all function in an organization).


  • He believed that all employees should be involved in studying and promoting quality control by learning seven statistical tools.

    (He created cause-and-effect diagram.)


  • He defined the customer as the person in the line.

  • QCC  putting workers into teams to solve quality problems.


  • Taguchi viewed quality as an issue for the entire company and focused on the use of statistical methods to improve quality.

  • Proposed the Loss Function’s concept.

The loss function s concept
The Loss Function’s concept

  • the loss function’s concept.

The loss function1
The Loss Function

Y = k(x-target)2

y = the cost or loss incurred by a measurement on an item

k = a constant, to be determined for each application

x = the actual measurement on the item

target = the most desirable or optimal value of the measurement

In class 2
In class 2

  • The specifications for the diameter of an axle are 25.00 mm. + 0.25 mm. If the diameter is out of specifications, the axle must be scrapped at a cost of $4.00.

    What is the loss function for this application?



QM = Quality Management

QA = Quality Assurance

QC = Quality Control



Quality control qc
Quality Control: QC

  • เน้นที่การตรวจเช็คเป็นหลัก

  • ตรวจหาจุดบกพร่องและแยกของเสียทิ้ง

  • บทบาทของผู้ตรวจคือ การตรวจดูผลงานของผู้อื่น ว่าถูกต้องหรือเปล่า แล้วส่งผลการตรวจเพื่อเป็นข้อมูลให้กับฝ่ายผลิต

    เน้น จำนวนผลงาน ที่ถูกต้องตามกำหนด หรือจำนวนที่ทำเสีย

Quality assurance
Quality Assurance

  • เน้นที่ตัวระบบ และวิธีปฏิบัติงาน (Procedure)

  • ออกแบบ ให้คุณภาพเข้าไปอยู่ในระบบหรือวิธีปฏิบัติงาน

  • ทำให้เป็นไปตามมาตรฐาน หรือข้อกำหนด

    เน้น วิธีปฏิบัติงาน วิธีผลิตสินค้าหรือบริการ โดยเน้นผลิตสินค้าที่มีคุณภาพ เพื่อสร้างความพึงพอใจให้แก่ลูกค้า

Quality management
Quality management

  • มององค์กรเป็นระบบ ซึ่งประกอบด้วย





Assignment 1
Assignment 1

  • Explain the quality process model