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Quality, Quality Control. Lee Buddress, Ph,D ., C.P.M. Robert G. Gleason Professor and Director Supply and Logistics Program Portland State University. Control Charts. Processes Have Natural Variation Fundamental Question: Natural Variation or Process Change?

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quality quality control

Quality, Quality Control

Lee Buddress, Ph,D., C.P.M.

Robert G. Gleason Professor and Director

Supply and Logistics Program

Portland State University

control charts
Control Charts
  • Processes Have Natural Variation
  • Fundamental Question:
    • Natural Variation or Process Change?
  • That is what Statistical Process Control is All About
  • Key Assumptions:
    • Sample is RANDOMLY selected
    • Defects are randomly distributed throughout the lot
  • Cautionary Note: Works Best for High Volume, Repetitive Tasks
sampling
Sampling
  • For Defects (What is Quality of Lot?)
  • For Conformance to Specification (No More Than X% Defective)
control chart types
Control Chart Types
  • Attribute Charts (things counted)
    • P-chart: Proportion Defective
    • C-chart: Number of Defects
    • Focus is on PRODUCT output
  • Variable Charts
    • X-chart: Sample Means
    • R-chart: Range Means
    • Focus in on PROCESS, itself
control chart problem indicators
Control Chart Problem Indicators
  • One Data Point Outside Control Limit
  • Two Data Points in Zone Three
  • Five Consecutive Data Points on One Side of the Mean
  • Trend - Five Successive Points in a Trend
  • Erratic Behavior
  • Sudden Change in Behavior
pareto analysis
Pareto Analysis
  • A Prioritization Tool
  • Law of Diminishing Returns
5 m s
5 ‘M’s (+)
  • Ishikawa Diagrams (Fishbone)
    • Man
    • Machine
    • Method
    • Materials
    • Maintenance
    • Environment
why why
Why-Why
  • Goal is to Get Past Symptoms to Underlying Cause
  • Ask Why Until No Further Useful Information is Forthcoming
quality and supply chains
Quality and Supply Chains
  • Customer Requirements
  • Specifications
  • Supplier Selection
  • Process Capability
  • Quality Evaluation
    • First Article Inspection
    • Defect Detection
    • Defect Prevention
quality and supply chains1
Quality and Supply Chains
  • Supplier Certification
    • ISO 9000
  • Incoming Receiving
    • Legal Requirements for Inspection
    • Latent Defects
  • Learning Curves
total quality management
Total Quality Management
  • TQM Principles
    • Know/Understand Customers and Requirements
    • Satisfy/Delight Customers
    • Continuous Improvement

Elements of TQM

    • Process Identification
    • Process Mapping
    • Process Simplification
    • Process Controls
    • Track - Monitor
    • Continuous Improvement
standardization
Standardization
  • Internal
    • Processes
    • Materials
    • Equipment
  • External
    • Industry Standards (Materials)
    • Industrial Standardization (SAE)
    • Multi-Industry (ANSI, ASTM)
    • International (ISO, Metrics)
standardization1
Standardization
  • Industry Standards
  • Company Standardization
  • Impacts on Inventory
  • Impacts on Purchasing
  • Impacts on Maintenance and Repair
  • Impacts on Quality
  • Implementation
standardization quality
Standardization & Quality
  • Quality and Multiple Sourcing
  • Standardization = Known Characteristics
  • Supplier Certification
  • Why is it so important to get it right the first time?
    • Manufacturing
    • All Other Processes