INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL ELECTRONICS: THE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

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INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL ELECTRONICS: THE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT. In digital devices there are only two values, usually referred to as 0 and 1. 1 means there is a voltage (usually 5 volts) and 0 means the voltage is 0 volts

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INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL ELECTRONICS: THE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

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INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL ELECTRONICS: THE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT

In digital devices there are only two values, usually referred to as 0 and 1. 1 means there is a voltage (usually 5 volts) and 0 means the voltage is 0 volts

• In the 1960s, microelectronics got another boost with the creation of the integrated circuit, or IC for short.
What is Integrated Circuit
• Integrated Circuit- an electrical lay-out etched on thin, small, layers of semiconductor materials, incorporating or integrating various components inside, with the result of having a single device perform a particular function.
• 1. Integrated circuits incorporate several functions and circuitry in one small, thin rectangular-shaped object.
• 2. Integrated Circuits have low power consumption
• 1. When an IC is damaged , you cannot repair it
• 2. Ics that are sensitive to static electricity can easily be damaged by it
• 3. The sensitivity of the IC makes it important to provide the proper packaging and storage for it.
FAMILIES OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
• Integrated circuits can be classified into many groups, and these are some of the groupings of the various integrated circuits:
• 1.Number of components
• 2. Packaging
• 3. Purpose
TYPES OF ICs ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF COMPONENTS
• 1. SSI(Small Scale Integration)- For ICs with only a few transistorized components, mostly less that twenty.
• 2. MSI(Medium Scale Integration)- This group includes ICs with 20 to a few hundred transistorized components. It can be also composed of several SSI components
• 3. LSI (Large Scale Integration) – This involves ICs which have components numbering in the thousands
• 4. VLSI(Very Large Scale Integration) – This comprises about 1000,000 to as high as several million miniaturized components in one chip
TYPES OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS ACCORDING TO PACKAGING
• 1. SIP( Single In-Line Package)- contain pins aligned only one side
• 2. DIP(Dual In-Line Package)- The pins are arranged only on two sides of the package and are arranged in a single line.
• 3. QIP(Quad In-Line Package)- The pins are arranged on all four sides of the packages which is square shape
• 4. PGA(Pin Grid Array)- This is similar to QIP but it runs in sevral layers deep
• 5. TSOP(Thin-Small-Outline Package- A special quad package, but for smaller ICs like memory components
TYPES OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS ACCORDING TO FUNCTION
• 1. General Purpose Integrated Circuits
• 2. Hybrid Integrated Circuits
• 3. Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC)