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CHINA. By: Chris Griffith & John Boyko. About China. China is a tight knit society with strong values and beliefs The Chinese are an innovative people who brought about many crucial technologies China is one of the oldest, continuous societies

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  1. CHINA By: Chris Griffith & John Boyko

  2. About China • China is a tight knit society with strong values and beliefs • The Chinese are an innovative people who brought about many crucial technologies • China is one of the oldest, continuous societies • Over time it increased in size by conquering the surrounding lands Han Dynasty 206 BCE - 220 CE Zhou Dynasty 1027-256 BCE Qin Dynasty 221 - 207 BCE

  3. Government • Classical China had a monarchal system with families of kings called dynasties • These dynasties flowed in a circular pattern known as a dynasty cycle • In a dynastic cycle, a new dynasty starts when a new ruler overtakes the old one You can see this chart more clearly at http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/goldenages/china.cfm

  4. Zhou (1027-256 BCE) • The Zhou government was a feudal monarchy with many vassals, or rulers of portions of land who served the king • The Zhou conquered additional land know as the “Middle Kingdom” • The Zhou came up with the idea of a “Mandate from Heaven”, which they and all future dynasties used to justify their rule • Zhou Dynasty was a time of great philosophical advancement • One Great Philosopher of the Zhou dynasty was Confucius or Master K’ung • His teachings are the main focus of Confucianism • The latter part of the Zhou Dynasty is divided into the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period

  5. Qin (221-207 BCE) • The Qin Dynasty ended the Warring States Period by conquering all the other states • This was the first time China was organized into one body • The Qin had a Legalist government, which meant they followed rules strictly, that was run by an Emperor (Shi huangdi) • They imposed high taxes and mandatory public works • Each of the commanderies had a civil governor, a military commander, and an imperial inspector, and they reported to the emperor • The commanderies were divided into smaller units known as counties • The Qin built the first Great Wall of China, which was expanded and improved by later dynasties This was the Great Wall of China during the Qin dynasty


  7. GREAT WALL OF CHINA! • Great Wall of China around 2,200 years ago in order to keep out the barbarian (The Huns) invasions. • The Great Wall was made of bricks and plaster; it is about 25 feet high, up to 30 feet wide and 1500 miles long and connected from Lintao through the Yellow River to the Liaodong Peninsula • It was stationed on the edges of mountains to prevent attacks. • The emperor’s soldiers and generals forced about 1,000,000 people from their homes to work on the Great Wall of China.Alexander, 4th Grade • Qin Dynasty collapses in 210 BC due to revolts, taxes, cruel policies, yet the wall remains to this day.

  8. The Great Wall of China was built to keep the Mongols out.

  9. Many died building it, and their bodies were used as filler for it.

  10. View from space!

  11. Primary Source • Shi Huangdi built a monument with the following inscription: “A new age is inaugurated by the Emperor; Rule and measures are rectified, The myriad things set in order… And there is harmony between fathers and sons The Emperor in his sagacity, benevolence and justice He made all laws and principles manifest.” Sima Qian, quoted in Records of the Historian What philosophy influenced Sima Qian?

  12. X’ian combines old & new China. The name means western capital.

  13. Old X’ian city wall . This is where the Silk Road caravans started.

  14. Soldier of Shi Huangdi • This terra-cotta soldier is one of more than 8,000 that stand guard inside the tomb of Emperor Shi Huangdi. A farmer uncovered the tomb in 1974 while digging a well. • How does the figure symbolize the power and authority of Shi Huangdi?

  15. Three pits were discovered and each contained some Terra Cotta soldiers. The soldiers are life size. Their clothing and hair styles help us understand social class divisions in Qin China. A topknot indicates an officer. There are over 7,000 soldiers in total.

  16. Life size horses of Terra Cotta

  17. Honor Guards

  18. The clay entrance ramp still has some workers footprints in it.

  19. An honor guard formation

  20. ¾ size Bronze chariot

  21. ¾ size Bronze horses

  22. Officers in front probably in a formation as if the Emperor was reviewing them.

  23. Pit 1= 16,000 square meters 172,222.6 square feet

  24. The well at the right is how the army was discovered. In this pit were 6,000 soldiers in many small pieces.

  25. Three farmers digging a well discovered these terra cotta figures below ground. They called in Chinese archaeologists who quickly uncovered the army and realized what this find meant. Legends had talked about it but everyone assumed it was just a story until 1974.

  26. Today the surviving farmers are employed by the museum. In the summer, they sign autographs for tourists. They were only paid $500 for their land by the Chinese government so these jobs are also compensation for the finders for their honesty in reporting the find.

  27. This is what the soldiers look like when they were discovered.

  28. Qin battle formationNotice the broken soldiers at the top. This is how they look when first uncovered. They must be put back together piece by piece.

  29. An officer and horses

  30. Broken soldiers

  31. Soldiers being reassembled

  32. Soldiers with bundles of possible missing pieces behind them.

  33. The reconstruction process- soldiers must be put back together and re-fired.

  34. This pit is HUGE !

  35. Terra-Cotta Soldiers Aim: What legacy did the Qin dynasty leave on Chinese history? Do Now: Matching

  36. Han (206 BCE – 220 CE) • The Han kept most of the governmental practices of the Qin, but added Confucian beliefs to their rule • The Han dynasty was a period of large expansion by military force • This expansion move China’s boundaries toward inner Asia, this created the opportunity for the Silk Road to develop • Under the Han rule, education became very important and many important history books, textbooks and encyclopedias were written • During the Han many of China’s important technologies were invented • Crop rotation was developed and practiced from 85 BCE onwards

  37. Art and Culture A bronze horse from the Han dynasty • Chinese art had many impressive forms, including: • Ornate carvings in jade, ivory, and wood • Amazing bronze workings • Spectacular temples • Elaborate works of silk • Most Chinese art deals with the beauty of the natural world • China had its own rich culture which was spread and enhanced by the Silk Road • The Silk Road stretched from China to the Mediterranean through India and Mesopotamia • This trade route brought many other societies’ culture into China and the Chinese culture throughout the ancient world This jade carving was a pendant from the Zhou dynasty

  38. Social System • The social hierarchy in China consisted of three levels, gentry, peasants, and merchants • Along with this hierarchy was the idea that men held a higher status than women

  39. Yin Yang a Daoist symbol of the harmony of opposites Religion/Philosophy • Classical China did not have a unified belief system • Two major philosophies in China were Confucianism and Daoism • Confucianism was a school of though based on the teachings of Confucius • It taught people to act in accordance with the five major relationships, 4 of which dealt with a superior and a subject, and respectful subservience • Daoism was a more spiritual philosophy based on the idea of the “Dao” or “way” • It taught specific ways to follow the “Dao” and ultimately become one with the “Dao” • Along with these most Chinese practice ancestral worship An important symbol of Confucianism

  40. Economics • The main source of income was agriculture • Most farming was of wheat, barley, millet, rice and beans • There was a large economic gap between the wealthy bureaucrats and the peasant farmers • Most of China’s population worked as peasant farmers • The next largest group were merchants who sold goods domestically throughout China • Another source of economic gain was the trade China had with other countries along the Silk Road

  41. Science This is a chart of where the Chinese would place the needles when performing acupuncture • Chinese science dealt with a wide range of subjects including astronomy, chemistry, botany, and zoology • The Chinese were advanced in astronomy and created a lunar calendar and clocks based on astronomical movements • Important technologies: the first books made of wood or bamboo, paper made from wood pulp, the rudder for use on ships, the fishing reel, and the wheelbarrow • In the field of medicine, physicians developed acupuncture and made use of certain plants as herbal remedies

  42. Works Cited Stearns, Peter, Michael Adas, Stuart Schwartz, and Marc Gilbert. World Civilizations: The Global Experience . AP Edition DBQ Update Fourth Edition. Pearson Education, 2006. Print. "Dynastic China." Regents Prep. 2009. Web. 28 Sep 2009. <http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/goldenages/china.cfm>. "Chapter 2: Classical Civilization: China." Pearson Education. 2008. Pearson Longman, Web. 28 Sep 2009. <http://wps.ablongman.com/long_stearns_wcap_4/18/4646/1189489.cw/index.html>. "Map of Ancient China." China Highlights. 2007. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://www.chinahighlights.com/map/ancient-china-map/>. "Religious symbols." Wikimedia Commons. 02 May 2009. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Religious_symbols>. "Qin Dynasty." Minnesota State University Mankato. 2002. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/early_imperial_china/qin.html>. “Zhou Dynasty." Minnesota State University Mankato. 2002. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/ancient_china/zhou.html>. “Han Dynasty." Minnesota State University Mankato. 2002. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/early_imperial_china/han.html>. "Acupuncture." Hazel Priestley Acupuncture. 2008. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://hazelacupuncture.co.uk/acupuncture.html>. "Clothing and Ornaments ." Cultural China. 2007. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://traditions.cultural-china.com/en/15T1477T2337.html>. "Ancient China." Buzzle. 2009. Web. 30 Sep 2009. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/ancient-china.html>.

  43. Groupings & DBQ’s • Count off by 2’s • 1’s on the Right side 2’s on the left side • Identify a recorder. • Take off one shoe place them in a pile. • NOW LIST HOW MANY DIFFERENTS GROUPS YOU CAN COME UP WITH BASED ON ALL YOUR SHOES. 10 MIN. GO. • TEAM THAT WINS WILL GET CANDY

  44. DBQ CHART • Based on the visual sources and what you learned about Shi’s tomb complex how would you characterize him as a ruler and as a man. Students can place them into 2 categories for homework using the DBQ Chart.

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