595-604- Identify the contributions of the Scientific Revolution. - Rank the most significant contributors and defend and explain your rankings.
1. T/F? The Emancipation Proclamation freed all the slaves in the United States.2. T/F? Tornadoes in the Southern Hemisphere spin in a different direction than those in the Northern Hemisphere.3. In the nursery rhyme, where did Little Jack Horner sit?4. In what year did the first person walk on the moon?5. Which is larger – a violin or a viola?6. Who wrote the play Hamlet?7. How many cards are dealt to each hand in a game of bridge?8. In a checkers game, how many checkers does each player start with?9. How many days does it take for the earth to travel around the sun?10. What was the last state to join the United States?
The Scientific Revolution Scientific Thought Before 1500s: • Scientific thought was based on ancient and medieval ideas – “World View” based on religion. • European notions of the universe based on Aristotle. • Chief feature of this view was the belief in a static, motionless earth at the center of the universe known as the “Geocentric Theory”. • Ten Crystal Spheres moved around the earth.
Rank ‘Em • Who is the most significant scientist from the reading? • Rank in order of significance 1 (most) to 5 (least) in margin among these scientists: - Copernicus - Galileo - Newton - Bacon - Descartes
Go to your corner! Develop argument with details to support your belief that your number one ranked scientist is the most significant. FRONT OF ROOM Bacon Copernicus Newton Descartes Galileo
Aristotle • Greek Philosopher in the 4th • Century B.C. • Planets revolve around the • Earth (Geocentric view). • Distinguished between the • celestial and sub-lunar world. quintessence four imperfect elements
COPERNICUS • Developed the Copernican Hypothesis or “Heliocentric Theory: • Stars and planets revolve around the sun, so the earth moves, NOT the sun. • Suggested a universe of staggering size. • Suggested earth was little different from the heavens. • Published “On Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies” (1543) • Drew sharp criticism from Protestants but not Catholics (since Catholic Church never literally interpreted the Bible).
Tycho Brahe Tycho Brahe wore metal insert over nose • 1546-1601 • Planets revolve around sun and entire group revolves around earth and moon • Not Heliocentric Sun Earth Centered Tychonic Universe
Johannes Kepler 1571-1630 Discovered “Three Laws of Motion”: -Orbits are elliptical -Planets don’t move at uniform speeds -Time it takes for planets to orbit is related to the distance from the sun Kepler's model to explain the relative distances of the planets from the Sun in the Copernican System.
Galileo 1564-1642 • Modern Experimental Method • First to use a refracting telescope to make important astronomical discoveries of the four moons of Jupiter • Formulated the “Law of Inertia” • Tried for heresy after publishing book “Dialogue on Two Systems of World”.
Isaac Newton - 1642-1727 - Wrote “Law of Universal Gravitation” stating all bodies in universe attract each other in a precise mathematical relationship. - Studied at Cambridge University
Francis Bacon: Empiricism – - The idea that one should base theories on direct observation rather than only speculation - Used “Inductive Reasoning” which infers from the specific to the general. - If a billiard ball moves when hit with a cue stick, then all things will move when hit.
Rene’Descartes: • Discovered Analytical Geometry • Used Deductive Reasoning where theories are developed from general to specific. • “I think, therefore, I am” • “All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; Socrates is mortal.” • Developed Cartesian Dualism – idea that all things can be divided into mind or matter. • Wrote “The Treatise of Man” but refused to publish it after seeing Galileo’s experience. Treatise of Man
Causes of the Scientific Revolution • Universities of the Middle Ages provided the framework for the new world view. • By 1300, there were many educated lawyers, doctors and church leaders who provided basis for philosophy and science. • Renaissance • Rebirth of interest in education expanded. • Improved tools of study existed. • Telescopes, maps, barometer, microscopes. • Better methods of research were developed. • Empiricism • Inductive reasoning • Deductive reasoning • Reformation • Some view the Catholic Church as suppressing science.
Resultsof the Scientific Revolution • Helped create an international scientific community which led to a social group of scientists. • Led to the development of the Modern Scientific Method providing a new way of gaining and testing knowledge.