The Tundra Biome By Ryan Adkins
Characteristics of The Tundra • Extremely cold climate • Low biotic diversity • Simple vegetation structure • Limitation of drainage • Short season of growth and reproduction • Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material • Large population oscillations • The 2 types of tundra are Arctic and Alpine
Tundra Biome Info • The Tundra is the coldest of all the biomes. • Tundra comes from the Finnish word tunturi, meaning treeless plain. • Located in the northern hemisphere
Arctic Tundra • The growing season ranges from 50 to 60 days. • The average winter temperature is -34° C • The average summer temperature is 3 to 12° C
Plants in the Arctic Tundra • There are about 1,700 kinds of plants in the arctic and subarctic. • These include low shrubs, sedges, reindeer mosses, liverworts, grasses, 400 varieties of flowers, crustose, and foliose lichen
Animals in the Arctic Tundra • There are many types of herbivorous animals such as lemmings, voles, caribou, arctic hares and squirrels • The carnivorous animals include arctic foxes, wolves, and polar bears • Many migratory birds live there such as ravens, snow buntings, falcons, loons, sandpipers • The tundra is home to many insects including mosquitoes, flies, moths, grasshoppers, blackflies and arctic bumble bees • Many of these animals hibernate or migrate south during the winter because food is not abundant.
Alpine Tundra • Alpine tundra is located on mountains throughout the world at high altitude where trees cannot grow. • The growing season is approximately 180 days. • The nighttime temperature is usually below freezing. • The soil in the alpine is well drained.
Plants in the Alpine Tundra • Tussock grasses • Dwarf trees • Small-leafed shrubs • Heaths • There are not many plants in the Alpine Tundra due to it’s location and elevation.
Animals in the Alpine Tundra • The animals in the Alpine Tundra are all very well adapted to its climate. • These animals include pikas, marmots, mountain goats, sheep, elk. • There are also many birds and insects such as grouselikebirds, springtails, beetles, grasshoppers, and butterflies.