Tundra Biome By: Josh Loflin Kyla R.
Location of Tundra Also called the “ice desert” “frozen prairie” The tundra biome is the coldest of all terrestrial ecosystems and also the most chaotic. The two types of Tundras are Artic and Alpine
Latitude of Tundra • The Latitude of the Tundra is located 60-70 degrees North of the equator.
5 Plants in the Tundra • 1.Arctic Moss-The summertime only lasts six to eight weeks. In the winter it is dark most of the time, and even in the summer it is usually cloudy and overcast; therefore plants get little sunlight. • 2.Arctic Willow- Salix arctica prefers to live in dry, cold, open places, hummocks in wet sphagnum bogs, sedge meadows, margins of pools, and muddy salt flats in course sandy soil • 3.BearBerry- bearberry is a low growing plant it can stay out of the wind chill. It's fine silky hairs also help to keep it warm. Leathery leaves are also an adaptation to the cold of the tundra.
Plants Continued… • 4.Caribou Moss-Caribou moss grows in arctic and northern regions around the world. It grows on the ground and on rocks. It looks like a foamy, gray-green spongy mass, and grows to be 1 to 4 inches high. The stems, or stocks, are hollow, and branch out many times. • 5.Pasque Flower- The range of color in the petals is from dark lavender to almost white. In the center of the flower are yellow stamens. Below the flower, around the stem is a leaf covered in silky hairs, as is the rest of the plant.
Tundra Herbivores 1.Arctic Hares- have an all white coat in the winter and in the summer the coat may change to blue-grey or grey-brown coat. They have large hind feet that help them move through snow and long claws to help them dig through the snow to find vegetation. 2.Musk Ox- have an outer coat made of long, brown hairs and an inner coat called quivet which consists of wool. This is a special adaptation that helps the musk ox survive the freezing temperatures of the tundra. 3. Rock Ptarmigan- During the summer months, they will have a spotted brown color with males shedding their white winter plumage later than females. This allows the males to be spotted by females easily against the brown, but also allows them to be seen by predators.
Herbivores Continued… • 4. Caribou- Caribou are well adapted to living in the tundra with thick fur and skin that enable them to enter frigid rivers while migrating. The hooves of caribou are wide to assist supporting it on surfaces such as mud and snow and wide hooves will also help the Caribou to dig and swim. • 5. Lemmings- in the winter lemmings stay warm in tunnels under the snow. When summer comes the lemmings leave their dens to feed on new leaves, grasses, roots and berries. If there is plenty of food a female lemming has as many as six sets of babies.
Tundra Carnivores • Polar Bears- have a thick oily fur coat and a layer of blubber under their skin. They spend most of their time on the pack ice or in the water, where they can hunt favorite food- the ringed seal. Before summer arrives the bears eat as food as they can to fatten up. • Wolverines-The wolverine is short, with the powerful legs and large feet. It looks like a small bear. Their fur is used for trimming parka hoods. • Ermines-The animal is so slim so it can go into lemmings’ tunnels. The winter coats are white, and summer coats are white and summer coats are brown, Ermine are fast, very brave and always hungry, when it kills the animals it takes their home.
Carnivores Continued… • 4. Snowy Owl- Build their nests on the ground, typically in a higher place than the surrounding land so that they will have good visibility to predators and prey. They have a thick layer of feathers on their body as well as their feet to enable them to survive in the tundra. • 5. Snow Leopard- They have a stocky body and rounded ears. The fur on the snow leopard’s underbelly also helps it when trying to scale steep and unstable surface. They have paws for better distribution of weight while walking on the snow. Long and flexible tail for improved balance.
Ecological Pyramid Snow leopard Polar bear Wolverines, snowy owl, ermines Caribou, Lemming, arctic hare, musk ox, Rock Ptarmigan- Pasque Flower, bearberry, caribou moss
Tundra Biome Examples • Predator-Prey) Polar bear and Fish or Seal • Parasitism) Tape Worms and Emma Starks • Competition) Polar bear, Snow leopard • Mutualism) Caribou and the small birds that lay on the Caribou’s Antlers
Benefits of the Tundra Biome • The tundra is another place to live for animals. Another Benefit is once you kill caribou you can get their fur to keep you warm and make you warm. The perfect habitat for animals such as arctic hares, Musk ox, lemmings, and ermines, etc.
Threat to Biome • Global Warming because if the temperature increases then the ice will ice and the polar bears will become extinct. Blizzards because if there is too much snow then the animals will not be able to reach the surface of the snow then the animals will die.