TUNDRA BIOME By Jenny Arias
When you hear the word tundra what is the first thing you think of…? • A warm place..? • A forest…? • Dessert…?
Quick facts about Tundra • Tundra have 9 months of temperatures below freezing. • Tundra is the coldest of all biomes. • This biome covers about 1/5 of the land in Earth. • Artic tundra is the youngest of all biomes formed 10,000 years ago. • Short season of growth and reproduction. • Low biotic diversity. • Plants in tundra are protected by the snow during winter.
Tundra is found just below the ice caps of the artic. Temperature are extremely cold but, can get warm during the summer. Tundra winters are long, dark, and cold. Temperature can easy reach to 0 degrees for 6 to 10 months. Some of the most common plants are mosses, sedges and lichens. Annual precipitation is very low. Conditions
Climate • Tundra is known to be located near the artic circle therefore, tundra climate is very cold and dry. The temperature can easily range from -40 degrees fahrenheit to -93, depending on the area. However in the summer temperature can go up to 45 degree fahrenheit. The warmest summers happens in Siberia, Alaska and Canada. • Tundra is one of the driest places in earth with a total of 6 to 10 inches of rain per year (including melted snow)
Some more weather stuff.. • In spite of the low rainfall this biome is known to have very wet underfoot because the moisture evaporates slowly. • As a result of low temperatures precipitation is light. Usually 10 inches a year however, eastern and western in North America have almost double the amount because of the influence of the ocean.
Location • Tundra is located at the top of the world, near the arctic circle. • Tundra is found in the following places… • Siberia • Russia • Asia • Canada • Alaska
Plants • Tundra is not a suitable place for plants to grow due to the extremely cold temperatures that permanently freeze the soil therefore, most of tundra plants are low shrubs. The average tree is less than a knee high. Some of the most common types of plants are…
Types of plants • Artic willow– Found in North American tundra. This is a treeless plain with uneven ground usually found in dry, open places. • Bearberry– Also known as Foxberry. Is a low growing ever green, covered in a thick bark and fine silky hairs. • Caribou moss– This plant is found on the ground and rocks. It looks like foamy gray, green spongy mass and grows to be 1 to 4 inches high. • Labrador tea– Labrador tea grows to be 4 to 5 feet. It has a woody branches with narrow 1 to 2 inches leaves. This plant is smooth on the upper side with rusty nails underneath. • Pasque flower-- One of the prettiest flowers that grows in tundra. This flower has several stems that rises 6-8 inch off the ground. The color can range from dark lavender to almost white.
Bearberry • Pasque Flower
Animals • Tundra animals are very familiar to those found in the north pole, with a tick layer of skin and can easily hide under the snow. This are examples of some of the animals that are found in tundra… • **isnt he a cutie?**
Types of animals • Musk oxs-- These animals have very long curvy horns with sharp tips that have a scent for mating. They feed off plants, and their main animal predator are wolves. • Wolves– Known for their strong teeth, a fur coat and good eye sight. • Polar bear– This type of animal have a white coat with sharp claws to hold their prey. Good smell sense. Most of their food consists of seals. • Fox– They have coats that change between seasons. They eat lemmings, berries, eggs and gulls. • Brown bear– Large animal with a fur and long claws. They eat large amount of berries, fish and plants.
Endangered Species • There are many reason of why animal become endangered species, but one of the biggest treats facing the animals that live in tundra is global warming. • For example, polar bears are being highly affected by this global warming. Scientist have reported effects in the body size and the amount of the animals have decreased 15 %. • Polar bear is the largest four-footed carnivore on earth. This animal can live up to 25 years. The entire body is furred, even the bottom of the paws, which helps prevent them from slipping on the ice. • Polar bears have this tick skin made specially for the harsh environment they live. Polar bears are known to be comfortable in freezing water and land. They can be found on pack ice, coastal islands, coastlines and out in the artic water.
Endangered Species • Peary Caribou is another animal endangered species. Peary Caribou are smaller than barren-ground caribou, with a smaller face, shorter legs and lighter color. In winter they have a mostly white color, during the summer it turns into grey, with white legs. • Peary caribou are known to be around harsh, treeless environment. In summer they hang around in moist areas such as river valleys, slopes and upland plains. However, in winter they like to hang around hill tops and raised beach ridges where the snow layer is thinner which makes it easier to search for food.
Natural resources • Tundra has a very cold climate. Most of the resources that are easily found in other biomes are hard to find them here. This are the 3 most abundant resources found in tundra. • Ice-> Ice counts for 90% of the world fresh water. • Coal-> Found in swamps as plants die and are buried before they can be complety decomposed. This is used aa direct heat. • Oil-> Oil is found in the mountains lowlands and plateaus. This was made a million years ago living things died and as years passed they were cover by mud and rocks, and the pressure cause the oil to form.
Soil • Cold temperature and thin sol make it possible for artic tundra species to thrive in the alphie tundra. However like artic tundra soil, rain runs of rather than collecting in the soil, making the ground very dry.
Threats • Pollution is not something that happen right on tundra. Tundra pollution problem comes from airborne pollutants. • The biggest threats comes from oil and gas development which results in global warming. As the earth warms each day the permafrost melts and tundra ecosystem will be ruin, not only that but also permafrost has dead plant material that’s is going into the air as carbon dioxide which will speed up global warming.
**References** • http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome/tundra.html- Oct 27 • http://webacc.fsd38.ab.ca/schools/Gibson/milz/geography/tundra_far_north_sw/tundra_far_north1.htm- Oct 28 • http://www.defenders.org/wildlife/arctic/caribou.jpg- Oct 28 • http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/tundra_climate_page.htm -Oct 29 • http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/tundra/tunill.html#tunmat – Oct 30