By: Justine Blanke, Olivia Shafer, Lauren Wathen, Brittany Kissel, Luke Petrig, and Jonny Goergen Ancient Egypt
Family Life For the people of ancient Egypt, family life was a very high priority and was greatly valued. Children were a blessing. For the rich, slaves or servants took care of the children, but if you had a lower income the mothers took care of the children. The Egyptians usually had large families, and the children usually married between the ages of twelve to fifteen.
Society Ancient Egyptian society was basically divided into four classes.
Society (cont.) The upper class included nobles, priests, engineers, doctors, and of course the pharaoh. The middle class included scribes, skilled craftsman, teachers, and soldiers. The peasants, mostly farmers, and servants made up the lower class. The slaves made up the bottom class.
Shelter Ancient Egyptian nobleman houses were made from bricks of adobe (sun dried mud). The house had three basic parts, a reception area, a hall, and private quarters. The commoners lived in townhouses that were two to three stories high. The first story was for business and the second and third were the living space.
Education Those who could afford school sent there sons at about seven years of age. They would study religion, reading, writing, and arithmetic. It is not proven that girls went to school, but some were taught to read and write at home.
Recreation Egyptians spent their spare time doing a variety of things. They held dramatizations in the temple. But the main source of entertainment is the Nile River. The Egyptians go fishing, river boating, swimming, and hunt crocodiles or hippopotamuses. The Egyptians loved music and played instruments such as the lute, harp, and lyre.
Food Egyptian’s food was cooked in clay ovens or open fires. Egypt’s most popular beverage was beer made with barley. The Egyptians produced wine, though normally only found on the tables of the wealthy.
Food (cont.) The Egyptians most staple food was bread. Bread was made by women grounding wheat into flour Then, the flour was pounded (by the men) into fine grains To flavor the bread, the Egyptians often used sesame seeds, honey, fruit, butter, and herbs to the dough
Clothing Usually made from linens ranging from course to fine texture Men used to wear kilts (a short skirt) during the Old and Middle Kingdoms The wealthy men wore pleated kilts, while the older men wore longer kilts Noblewomen usually wore beaded dresses During the New Kingdom, noblemen usually wore a long robe over his kilt The women wore long pleated dresses with a shawl
Clothing (cont.) Kings and queens often wore decorative and ceremonial clothing with feathers and sequins Sandals were worn on special occasions, but other than that, people went barefoot. Most children ran around nude during the summer, but during the winter, they wore wraps and cloaks
Religion It is said that religion guided every aspect of Egyptian life Their religion was based on polytheism- worshiping many gods- with the exception during the reign of Akenaton Had as many as 2000 gods and goddesses Because their religion stressed an afterlife, Egyptians devoted much time and wealth to preparing for survival in the next world They had tales telling how the world began Temples were considered dwelling places for the gods The priests duty was to care for the gods and attend to their needs
Religion (cont.) The Ancient Egyptians believed they could only reach their full potential after death. Each person was thought to have three souls, the "ka," the "ba," and the "akh." A mummification process took place when a person died.
Mummification Process Steps to Mummification
Embalming Step 1: The body is washed with palm wine. Step 2: The body is rinsed with water from the Nile River. Step 3: A small cut is made in the left side of the body. Step 4: The internal organs which are the liver, lungs, small intestines, and large intestines, are removed.
Embalming (cont.) Step 5: The brains are removed. A long hook inserted through the nose will pull the brains out. (The Egyptians did not know what the brain was for, so they removed it.) Step 6: The body is covered and stuffed with natron. This is known as the drying stage. Step 7: Wait forty days for the body to dry. Step 8: The body will be washed with water from the Nile River.
Embalming (cont.) Step 9: The body is covered with sweet smelling oils. Step 10: The body is stuffed with dry things, such as sawdust, leaves, and linen. Step 11: The body is covered with more oils. Step 12: The internal organs are put into the canopic jars.Now the body is ready for the next stage, wrapping.
Wrapping Step 1: The head and neck are wrapped. Step 2: The fingers and toes are wrapped. Step 3: The arms and legs are wrapped. Step 4: The sacred amulets are placed. The Isis knot, and the Plummet. Step 5: The spells from the book of the dead are read. Step 6: The arms and legs are tied together.
Wrapping (cont.) Step 7: A scroll is placed between the hands of the deceased. Step 8: The full body is wrapped. Step 9: The body is painted with liquid resin as glue. Step 10: A cloth with Osiris painted on it is wrapped around the body. Step 11: A large cloth is wrapped around the body.
Wrapping (cont.) Step 12: Linen stripes are wrapped around the body to hold the cloth in place. Step 13: The mummy is put in the first coffin. Step 14: The mummy is put in the second coffin. Step 15: The funeral is held. Step 16: The opening of the mouth ceremony is performed.
Wrapping (cont.) Step 17: The mummy is put in the sarcophagus. Step 18: The mummy is put in its final resting place, the tomb.
The Great Sphinx It is1.481 feet tall 65 feet tall and 240 feet long It was made 2700s BC It was made of natural limestone outcrop The stele tells the story of a dream the pharaoh Tuthmosis IV had when he was a prince In the 1980's more than 6 years, more than 2,000 limestone blocks were added to the body of the sphinx. This treatment did not work. More of the rocks fell off, along with parts of the original rock. Later, many workers worked for six months to repair it. In 1988, the left shoulder crumbled and blocks fell off. Now, they are concentrating on draining away subsoil seepage which is damaging the rock. They are also repairing the damaged shoulder with smaller blocks and staying with the original size.
The pyramid of Khufu • King Khufu built the great pyramid sometime around 2560 BC. He was the second pharaoh of the fourth dynasty of rulers in Egypt. It took about 20 years to build the pyramid of Khufu. On completion, it measured 146 m. Over the years, it lost 10 m (30 ft) off its top. It was one of the tallest structures of the world till Eiffel Tower was built in 1889.
Bibliography (February 26, 2009) http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/food/pictures/beerjars.jpgPicture: Author and Publisher: Unknown) (February 26, 2009) http://www2.sptimes.com/Egypt/EgyptCredit.4.2.htmlEgypt: Daily Life By: St. Petersburg Times (March 2, 2009) http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/00327/images/egyptian_priest.gif(Picture: Author and Publisher Unknown) (March 2, 2009) http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag01012001/fashion4.jpg(Picture: Author and Publisher Unknown) (March 2, 2009) http://files.vector-images.com/cd_samples/egypt_gods.gif(Picture: Author and Publisher Unknown) (March 2, 2009) http://img.alibaba.com/photo/11178557/Ancient_Egyptian_Statues_Gods_kings_Pharaohs_egypt_relics.jpg Picture: Author and Publisher Unknown) (March 3, 2009) http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/africa/egypt/ Map of Egypt By: Lonely Planet Publications (March 3, 2009) http://www.franklin.ma.us/auto/upload/schools/horace/307-egmap.jpg Picture: Author and Publisher Unknown (March 3, 2009) http://www.bible-history.com/maps/map-of-Egypt-in-Bible-Times.gif Map of Egypt in Bible Times Author Unknown (March 4, 2009) http://www.crystalinks.com/egyptemplemap.gif (Picture: Author and Publisher Unknown) (March 4, 2009) http://maps.google.com/maps?ie=UTF-8&hl=en&tab=wl (Picture: Author and Publisher Unknown)
Bibliography (March 5, 2009) http://www.touregypt.net/kings.htmEgyptian Kings (Pharaohs), Governors and other Rulers By: Jimmy Dunn (March 5, 2009) http://www.eyelid.co.uk/k-q-menu.htmAncient Egypt Kings & Queens By: Mark Millmore (March 6, 2009) http://www.library.thinkquest.org/CRO215615/mumification.htm (Unknown Author and Publisher) (March 6,2009) http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&sourc=sq&hl=&geocode=&q=temple+of+Ramses+the+3rd%3B+egypt&sll=30.807911,31.530762&sspm=11.441927,23.203125&ie=UTF8&cd=1&view=map&ei=JtytSdTKCJSYMszh1aoB&attrid= (Author and Publisher Unknown) (March 9,2009) http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://unimaps.com/flags-africa/egypt-flag.gif&imgrefurl=http://unimaps.com/flags-africa/egypt-print2.html&usg=__MUSf7QjCQZurSWSXRcUcWfDvggo=&h=599&w=900&sz=12&hl=en&start=3&sig2=jBXNl5Sj_DenKYljtSpgfw&tbnid=p7Qtkghhy89IiM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=146&ei=96W1ScvZG-CymQfYmeXgBQ&prev=/images%3Fq%3Degypt%2Bflag%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX (Picture: Author and Publisher Unknown)
Bibliography • (March 5, 2009) http://www.kidsgen.com/wonders_of_the_world/pyramid_of_khufu.htmThe Great Pyramid of Khufu Author: Unknown) • (March 5, 2009) http://images.google.com/images?ndsp=20&um=1&hl=en&rlz=1T4HPND_enUS314US249&q=pics+of+egyptians+pyramids+and+labels&start=0&sa=N(Pictures: Author and Publisher Unknown)
Bibliography March 2ndhttp://www2.sptimes.com/Egypt/EgyptCredit.4.2.htmlEgypt: Daily Life St. Petersburg Times March 2ndhttp://www.egyptologyonline.com/life_in_egypt.htm Egyptology Online: The Astra Corporation Limited March 3rd http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://historylink101.net/images/egyptian-house.jpg&imgrefurl=http://historylink101.net/egypt_1/a-housing.htm&usg=__Kkd1v22kgj3GbtBYNnMeh-opSSk=&h=247&w=471&sz=18&hl=en&start=2&tbnid=pz6SNOw-o057eM:&tbnh=68&tbnw=129&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dancient%2Begyptian%2Bhouses%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DGHousing in Ancient Egypt By: Eric Rymer March 5thhttp://www.touregypt.net/kids/color2.gif(Picture: Unknown)
Bibliography • http://www.solarnavigator.net/geography/geography_images/Egypt_Sphinx_Giza_Pyramid.jpg (unknown) March 3 • http://library.thinkquest.org/16325/library.html March 3 Reference Library • http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/sphinx1.htm March 4 Feature Story: The Great Syphinx of Giza By: Allen Winston
We hope you enjoyed our Egypt presentation! Hopefully, you will have enjoyed it enough to visit Egypt someday! Thank you!