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Revolution Brings Reform and Terror. Chapter 7 Section 2. The Assembly Reforms France. August 4, 1789 The Great Fear is making everything chaotic and people are panicking Feel like something must be done- meet the night of August 4 go all through the night

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Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

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the assembly reforms france
The Assembly Reforms France
  • August 4, 1789
    • The Great Fear is making everything chaotic and people are panicking
    • Feel like something must be done- meet the night of August 4 go all through the night
    • People make grand speeches, people crying, denounce all privileges.
      • “Patriotic drunkenness”- One upped each other on the amount they could give up
    • By the next morning the Old Regime is completely finished
the assembly reforms france1
The Assembly Reforms France
  • Rights of Man
    • August 26, 1789- Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen –Declaration of rights of man and citizen
      • Ideas of Enlightenment
    • Liberty, Egalite, Fraternité- Liberty, equality, fraternityisadopted as thier slogan
the assembly reforms france2
The Assembly Reforms France
  • A state controlled church
    • Took over church lands and made church officials be elected
    • Made them swear a loyalty oath- many refuse and are hunted down
    • Lands helped pay off France’s debt
    • Church becomes a place for political announcements
    • Many peasants are devout Catholics and were shocked by these reforms, thus no longer supported the Assembly
      • Separation of church and state
the assembly reforms france3
The Assembly Reforms France
  • Louis tries to escape
    • Mobs keep King and Queen in the city when they try to leave to visit their priest
    • Decide to flee the country and return at the head of the Austrian Army ( Marie’s Brother Emperor)
    • Writes a letter before he leaves saying he does not believe in any part of the Revolution even though he had taken an oath of loyalty
    • Thought that only Paris would be the problem
    • Family makes escape in costume, pretends to be someone else
    • Louis gets cocky ( talked to people, put up curtains in carriage, etc.)
    • Recognized by Drouet from bank note- rides to the next town
    • About 1,500 people from town stop them in Varennes and return them to Paris under guard
divisions develop
Divisions Develop
  • After 2 years of arguing finally make a new constitution in 1791
  • Limited constitutional monarchy
  • Legislative Assembly- New body created by the constitution, could create laws and approve or reject declarations of war.
    • King still had executive power to enforce laws
divisions develop1
Divisions Develop
  • Old problems still remain
  • Legislative assembly split into 3 groups.
    • 1. Radicals- sat on the left side of the hall
      • Opposed the idea of Monarchy and wanted sweeping changes
    • 2. Moderates- Sat in the center
      • Wanted some changes, but not like the radicals
    • 3. Conservatives- Sat on the right
      • Wanted limited monarchy and few changes
divisions develop2
Divisions Develop
  • Factions outside the Legislative Assembly
    • Emigres
      • Nobles and others who had fled France and wanted to restore the old Regime
    • Sans-Culottes
      • Parisian workers who wanted the Revolution to bring even bigger changes in France
      • “Without Knee breeches”
war and execution
War and Execution
  • Europe looks on Horrified- Asks France to restore Louis
    • The Legislative Assembly Declares War in April 1792
    • By Summer of 1792 Prussian forces almost to Paris
      • Threaten to destroy Paris if Royal Family harmed
      • August 10 20,000 people invade the royal palace and imprison the royal family
      • September Rumors again make them fearful so they raid the prisons and kill over 1,000 people ( mainly nobles, priest, and royal sympathizers)
war and execution1
War and Execution
  • Radicals in the streets and among the Legislative Assembly pressure the Assembly into getting rid of the constitution
    • Declared the King disposed, new election of a new legislature
  • Made a new governing body called the National Convention
    • Elected by universal manhood suffrage
    • Took office on Sept. 21, 1792
    • Abolished monarchy, declared France a republic, all male citizens could hold office.
war and execution2
War and Execution
  • Jacobins take control
    • Jacobins – the most powerful radical political organization during the French Revolution
    • Most people involved in the changes in 1792 were apart of this club
    • Under their control they reduce the King to commoner and tried him for treason
    • Find him guilty (by a very close vote) and sentence him to death
    • January 21, 1793 Louis executed by the Guillotine
war and execution3
War and Execution
  • Fall 1792 tide turns to France’s advantage
  • Early 1793 Great Britain, Holland, and Spain all join in fight against France.
  • Jacobin Leaders force to have a draft
    • 300,000 citizens between 18 and 40.
    • By 1794 army had grown to 800,000 and included women
the terror grips france
The Terror Grips France
  • The new government of France has enemies from the inside as well as outside
  • Maximilien Robespierre
    • Radical leftist
    • Very popular in the Jacobin clubs- wrote great speeches, had the nick name “L’incorruptible”
    • Wanted to build a “republic of virtue”
    • New calendar( 10 day wk.), new religion(cult of the supreme being), vous form outlawed
the terror grips france1
The terror grips France
  • July 1793 Robespierre elected to committee of public safety
  • Next year he rules basically as a dictator- his reign is know as the Reign of Terror
    • Imposing a “single will” through political surveillance and violence
  • People tried in the morning and guillotined in the afternoon
the terror grips france2
The Terror Grips France
  • Saw fellow radicals who wanted to relax/ stop the terror as willing to compromise and therefore not virtuous
  • Tried to revolt and are all executed
  • Suspended laws in order to get a stable government
    • 1500 people killed between June 10 and July 15, 1794
    • Up to 40,000 people died during the terror
end of the terror
End of the Terror
  • Eventually no one feels safe, so they turn on Robespierre
  • July 1794 they come for Robespierre
    • Tries to kill himself, but shoots his jaw off
    • Take him to Guillotine and he dies the same place as Louis
  • Backlash against the terror
    • Make a new government known as the directory
      • Bicameral legislator and 5 men executive body
      • Made up of moderates