Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Chapter 7 Section 2
Main Ideas • The revolutionary government of France made reforms but also used terror and violence to retain power. • Some governments that lack the support of a majority of their people still use fear to control their citizens.
Introduction • Peasants, nobles and church officers all felt the Great Fear. • Peasants began attacking the upper classes’ houses. • Right before the March on Versailles, some nobles and clergy members responded with a late night meeting.
The Assembly Reforms France • August 4, 1789 – noblemen declare their love for liberty and equality. • Joined with members of the National Assembly to sweep away their privileges over the Third Estate. • By morning the Old Regime was dead.
The Rights of Man • A few weeks later, a document is drafted reflecting the ideals similar to the DOI. • Known as the Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen, it stated that “men are born and remain free and equal in rights”. • Adopt “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity” as their slogan.
A State-Controlled Church • Many of the early reforms focused on the Church. • The assembly took over Church lands and declared that Church officials were to be elected and paid as state officials. • The Church lost both its land and political independence. • Proceeds from the sale would help France pay off its debt.
Alarmed Peasants • Peasants were devout Catholics and were alarmed by the assembly’s actions. • Mixing Church and State offended them.
Louis Tries to Escape • Due to the new relationship between church and state, Louis XVI pondered his fate as a monarch. • He was warned he and his family were in danger. • They attempt to escape to the Austrian Netherlands. • They were caught and returned to Paris. • This upset the radicals and sealed his fate.
A Limited Monarchy • Louis reluctantly approved the new constitution in 1791. • It called for a limited constitutional monarchy. • It created a new legislative body, the Legislative Assembly. • Create laws and approve/decline declarations of war. • King has power to enforce laws.
Emigres and Sans-Culottes • Emigres – wanted to restore the Old Regime • Nobles • Sans-Culottes – wanted even greater changes. • Workers and small shop keepers.
France at War • After a few months of war with Austria and Prussia, the Legislative Assembly sets aside the constitution and dissolved itself. • A new governing body, National Convention, arose. • Abolished the monarchy. • Declared France a republic. • Gave men the right to vote.
Jacobins Take Control • Jacobin Club – radical political organization • Jean-Paul Marat – prominent Jacobin • Called for death to all those who support the king. • National Convention was guided by Jacobins. • Declared Louis XVI a common citizen and prisoner. • Tried him for treason. • He met the guillotine on January 21, 1793.
War Continues • National Convention also has to deal with Austria and Prussia. • To reinforce the army, the Jacobins initiate a draft. • 300,000 citizens between 18-40. • Included women. • Army grew to 800,000 people.
Robespierre Assumes Control • Maximilien Robespierre, a Jacobin, gained power. • Wiped out France’s past. • Changed the calendar – 12 months, 30 days and renamed each. • No Sundays religion was outdated and dangerous. • Closed all churches in Paris. • Trend continued throughout France.
Robespierre • Became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety. • Governed France as a dictator. • Became known as the Reign of Terror. • Tried “enemies” in the morning, guillotined in the afternoon. • Around 40,000 people died during the Reign of Terror.
End of Terror • Members of the National Convention turned against Robespierre. • They demanded his arrest and execution. • He, too, met the guillotine (July 28, 1794).
New Government • Two-house legislature • Executive body of five men – Directory • Moderates • They returned order to France. • Found a general to command France’s armies – Napoleon Bonaparte.