Articulate the function of the Introduction Describe the structure of the Introduction Understand how both the big issue and the manageable question are addressed in the Introduction Understand how to integrate citations from the extant literature Identify the critical elements of the concluding paragraph of the Introduction Objectives: At the conclusion of this module students will: 1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 The Introduction to the Journal Article functions to: Establish the context of the work being reported Present the relevantprimary sources in the literature(with citations) leading to a summary of the current understanding of the problem being examined Clearly state the purpose of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem Briefly explain the approach and, if possible, the expected outcomes the study A B C D
1 2 3 4 5 • Structure of the Introduction
Brief overview of the big issue Detail pertinent primary sources that are integrated in such a manner that the reader arrives at YOUR manageable question Transition statement (remember this) should include: One sentence on big issue What we know What we need to know How to get there What is expected Structure of the Introduction: 1 2 3 a b c d e
1 2 3 4 5 • Big and manageable questions again!
Sleepiness slows your thought processes Excessive sleepiness impairs memory Poor sleep makes learning difficult Sleep affects mood Sleep : Some Facts 1 2 3 4 NationalSleep Foundation National Institutes of Health
Sleep : Data is good (NSF) America's Sleep Report Card According to the survey: More than one-third of Americans are at increased risk for insomnia.* While most respondents can identify the consequences of insomnia (e.g., increased risk of automotive crashes, decreased work performance, depression or mood changes) they don't have a clear understanding of what insomnia is. Two-thirds of those at increased risk for insomnia don't consider themselves to have the condition, which may further perpetuate reasons for not seeking help. Practicing a healthy sleep routine prior to actually getting into bed may help promote a good night's sleep. However, many people at increased risk for insomnia engage in stimulating activities an hour before getting into bed at least a few nights per week, including watching TV (90 percent); using the computer or Internet (33 percent); or doing household chores (43 percent).
The Opening Statement: An Example A person’s quality of life can be disrupted due to many different reasons. One important yet underestimated cause for that is sleep loss (National Sleep Foundation 2007). Working hours are constantly increasing along with an emphasis on active leisure. In certain jobs, people face sleep restriction. Some professions such as health care, security and transportation require working at night. In such fields, the effect of acute total sleep deprivation (SD) on performance is crucial. Furthermore, people tend to stretch their capacity and compromise their nightly sleep, thus becoming chronically sleep deprived.
Big Issue in Opening Statement: 1 pertinent fact • Body of the Text • Point 1 (references): Sleep provides enhancement which can be disrupted from interference (Walker, 2003) • Point 2 (references) • Point 3 (references) • Transition Statement • Five parts Body of the Text
1 2 3 4 5
Review slides 13-16 of the Basics of APA style at apastyle.org. Pay special attention to: Why using citations is important for avoiding plagarism (slide 13) How a citation is inserted into the text of the introduction (slide 14) How different type of citations are formatted when included in the introduction (slide 15) How multiple citations are used at the same location within the text of the introduction (slide 16) Integrating citations into your introduction: a b c d
1 2 3 4 5 The BIG splash: The transition statement
One sentence on big issue (Opening statement) What we know (Body of the Text) What we need to know (TS) How to get there (TS) What is expected (TS) What should be included: a b c d e
The primary focus of the proposed work is to determine if the learning and memory of sequential knowledge is influenced by either choline deficiency or enriched diets. To accomplish this we will use three different supplementation protocols: (1) 2-weeks of egg white supplementation, (2) 2-weeks of ½ white ½ yolk supplementation, and (3) 2-weeks yolk supplementation prior to the assessment of learning and memory using the SRTT. In addition to directly addressing the importance of choline supplementation per se the present proposal will also evaluate whether developmental status mediates the efficacy of supplementation. We chose to include two broad but distinct age ranges of a participants that currently encounter different but challenging learning environments – 8-11 years (i.e., children in middle school) and 18-22 years (Young Adults in College). Finally, we included two different learning conditions, distraction and no-distraction, to examine whether the supplementation of choline has a more robust benefit for learning and memory for cases in learning occurs in a compromised environment. In the present case we assume learning in the distraction condition will reduce the attentional resources that can be allocated to the learning and subsequent memory of the SRTT. A concluding statement Issue How to get there Expected Results
Why is the “big issue” worthy of study? Is the big issue clear and is the body of text linked to this issue? Is there a clear distinction between the “known” and an “unknown” issue? Is the “known” issue supported by experimental evidence (citations)? Does the transition statement adequately summarize the known? What is manipulated in the proposed experiment? What is measured? Can you plot the anticipated findings? Considerations for the Introduction:
Articulate the function of the Introduction Describe the structure of the Introduction Understand how both the big issue and the manageable question are addressed in the Introduction Understand how to integrate citations from the extant literature Identify the critical elements of the transition statement of the Introduction At this point you should be able to: 1 2 3 4 5