SCIENCE JOURNAL ON DESK We will go over set-up and first entry
Science Journal Items in Science Journal • Warm-ups • Summary of Notes • Reflection of Activities • Short Activities
Science Journal Grading of Science Journal • Format • Test • Application Questions created on concepts present in journal
COKE • Atlanta pharmacist John Pemberton was trying to make a cure for headaches. He mixed together a bunch of ingredients -- and don't ask, because we don't know; The recipe is still a closely guarded secret. It only took eight years of being sold in a drug store before the drink was popular enough to be sold in bottles. VIAGRA • The discover accidentally occurred in 1985 after thirteen years of hard work and laboratory experiments on developing a new blood pressure drug. In trial the drug was ineffective in controlling blood pressure but kept causing erections in males.
Date: Entry 1 Journal Entry • Why is science exploration important? • Why is making mistakes during the process of science exploration ok.
Good Experiments Begin with Good questions • Does exposure to ultraviolet radiation cause increased risk of skin cancer? • Good question, but not necessarily easy to answer, though finding correlations may be relatively easy. • Was Lee Harvey Oswald possessed by demons? • Bad question. Why? Well, first you must start with a definition of demon, and then come up with some objective means of measuring possessed-by-demons-ness.
Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Problem/Purpose- The question the lab will answer, must be testable, identifies variables • Variables - what you measure in an experiment • independent variable • manipulated variable • predictable change: it only changes because we chose how it would change • X-axis
Variables cont. • dependent variable • measured variable • unpredictable change: we don’t know how it will change until we do the experiment • Y-axis • Variables and Controls Videoclip
Steps to Scientific Method 2. Research: learn about the problem 3. Hypothesis: educated prediction 4. Procedure: the steps in the experiment to test the hypothesis A. Control - normal conditions, used for comparison B. Experimental group(s) have only one changing variable
5. Observations/Data: Don’t use opinion; Use factual descriptions or measurements 6. Analysis/Conclusion: Answers the purpose; accepts or rejects hypothesis • Scientific knowledge must be shared, which allows other scientists to repeat and verify the work of others
Science is Tentative • THEORY: the most logical explanation based on current evidence; becomes stronger as more evidence is gathered • LAW: universal generalization that is virtually unchanging; gravity
Examples of experiments 1 • How does fertilizer affect the growth rate of plants? • we set up an experiment testing different amounts of fertilizer on different plants & measuring the growth (height) of the plants: • dependent variable (Y-axis)? • height of plants • independent variable (X-axis)? • amount of fertilizer The effect of _____________on _____________ Amount of Fertilizer Height of Plants
Examples of experiments 2 • How does exercise affect heart rate of 10th grade student? • we set up an experiment testing different lengths of time of exercise (minutes) on the heart rate of students: • dependent variable (Y-axis)? • heart rate • independent variable (X-axis)? • minutes of exercise The effect of _____________on _____________ Exercise Heart Rate
“Testing the Greenhouse Effect”Discovery Education • Watch the Mythbusters video: • Watch for the parts of the scientific method we discussed as you watch the video see if you can identify the following: • Independent variable? • Dependent variable? • Control? • Experimental groups? • Constants? • Good or bad experimental design? • http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=1262B103-89BA-4CAD-80A9-405B9FE488D1&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=DSCE
Graphing Your Data Showing patterns & trends A picture is worth a thousand words!
Making pictures out of data How’s a critterto choose? • Graphs • line graphs • graphing data that shows continuous change • bar graphs (or histograms) • graphing data that is in disconnected groups
10 20 30 15 25 0 5 0 1500 1000 2500 2000 500 1200 How does elevation affect temperature? Line graph! 18 temperature 1200 ft? elevation
0 2 4 6 1 3 5 Gatorade water Pepsi Coke tea Which drink do you like best? Bar graph! number of students Red Bull? RB RB type of drink
Ticket IN the door You will need a half sheet of paper on your desk
Ticket out the Door • 1. Write down the steps of the scientific method. • 2. A controlled experiment will only have ____ changing variable. • 3. Maria tested the effect of different fertilizer on the growth of her grass. • What is Independent variable? • What is Dependent variable? • What is Control?
Entry 2 1/25 Is it Living? • From the list below, write down the things that you think are considered “living”. tree rock fire boy wind rabbit cloud grass seed egg bacteria cell molecule feather sun potato leaf fossil river butterfly mushroom • Explain your thinking. What “rule” or reasoning did you use to decide if something could be considered living?
Entry 2 cont. • After talking about the pictures… List the 6 characteristics of Life
What is biology? • Biology: the study of (-ology) all life (bio) • Includes many branches: 1. Microbiology: The study of microorganisms 2. Ecology: The study of living things and their environment 3. Cytology: The study of cells 4. Genetics: The study of heredity 5. Oncology: The study of cancer 6. Botany: The study of plants
Kingdoms of Life • Living organisms share many characteristics, but they come in many different forms. Organisms can be grouped or classified into 6 main kingdoms based on their similarities and differences.
Eubacteria– a kingdom of simple unicellular organisms known as prokaryotes. • These are the main bacteria you hear of like Staph, Strep and Salmonella. • Archaebacteria–a kingdom of simple prokaryotic unicellular organisms that live in extreme environments. They are even found living in the Dead Sea!
Protists – a kingdom of complex cells with a nucleus, but some are unicellular, some are multi. • These include algae and brain-eating amoebas!
Plantae – a kingdom of complex multicellular organisms who make their own food. • They are divided into 4 main groups within this kingdom.
Fungi – a kingdom of complex organisms that consume their food extracellularly. • These include mushrooms, molds and yeasts. • Animalia – a kingdom of complex organisms that move and consume food.
Some don’t fit…. Viruses!!! These organisms don’t have cells and don’t perform any of the life functions on their own. In order to survive, they must invade YOUR cells to reproduce!
Living creatures are ORGANIZED 1. ORGANIZATION • All made of the same collection of chemicals, but we are organized as… • molecules • proteins, fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids proteins DNA carbohydrates
Living creatures are ORGANIZED • All made of the same collection of chemicals, but we are organized as… • organelles & cells • plant cells & animal cells plant cell animal cell
Living creatures are ORGANIZED • All made of the same collection of chemicals, but we are organized as… • organs & organ systems • respiratory, circulatory, digestive, etc.
Living creatures RESPOND 2. RESPOND TO STIMULI • Respond to internal changes • Homeostasis • maintaining balanced conditions inside the body • Example: Insulin Production
RESPOND TO STIMULI • Respond to external changes • Touching a hot stove
Living creatures use ENERGY 3. ENERGY USE • Metabolism • all the reactions your body performs to make & use energy • eating & digestion & elimination of waste • synthesis = building • cellular respiration = making energy mitochondria
Living creatures are ADAPTED 4. ADJUST TO ENVIRONMENT • Adaptation - an inherited structure, behavior, or internal process that enables organisms to better survive an environment.
Living creatures GROW & DEVELOP 5. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT • Change over an individual’s life time • Growth • Increase in size (get bigger)
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT • Development • Mature • so they can reproduce
Living creatures REPRODUCE 6. REPRODUCTION • Make the next generation
Don’t be a Dodo… Ask Questions!!
Ticket out the door 1. List and describe three characteristics all living things have in common.
Entry 3 1/28 • What did all of the pictures have in common? • What are some differences among the pictures • What conclusions can we draw about characteristics of living things.