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INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER. Lecture #1 COMPUTER AND ITS USES. By Shahid Naseem (Lecturer). COURSE OUTLINES. Introduction to Personal Computer Setu p Computer Introduction and its uses Types of Computers Introduction to Operating System Introduction of Networking

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INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER


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    1. INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER Lecture #1 COMPUTER AND ITS USES By ShahidNaseem (Lecturer)

    2. COURSE OUTLINES • Introduction to Personal Computer Setup • Computer Introduction and its uses • Types of Computers • Introduction to Operating System • Introduction of Networking • Virus, its types and anti viruses • Computer Programming • Program Structure and flow charts. • Quiz • Programming Language • Fundamentals of Visual C++/Visual Basic • Arithmetic Operation and functions • Input/Output Statements • Decision making statements • Loop Functions • Subroutines • Data Types and File formats • Programming of simple and elementary civil engineering problems • Quiz Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    3. LECTURE OUTLINES

    4. LECTURE OUTLINES • What is computer? • Functions of computer. • Characteristics of computer. • Uses of computer. • Education • Computer – Aided learning (CAL) • Computer-Based Training (CBT) • Web- Based Training (WBT) • Business • Marketing • Stock Exchange • Banking • Department Store • Office Automation • Entertainment • E-Commerce Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    5. LECTURE OUTLINES • Health Care • Publishing • Travelling • Home • Agriculture Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    6. WHAT IS COMPUTER? Computer is derived from the word “compute” which means to calculate. In past, the computer was normally used to perform arithmetic operations. Computer is an electronic machine that is used to solve different kinds of problems according to a set of instructions given to it. “Set of instruction is called a program” Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    7. COMPUTER FUNCTIONS

    8. FUNCTIONS OF A COMPUTER • A computer can perform the following functions: • Accepts data as an input. • Receives instructions. • Processes or manipulates the data according to the given instruction which is also known as “Electronic Data Processing (EDP)”. • Produces output called information. • Stores information for future use. • Retrieves information when required. • Data Processing Means: • Arithmetic and logical operations on data to get required results. • To send and receive information from one location to another. • Arranging data into a specific order etc. Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    9. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER

    10. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER Computer is playing a main role in every field of life. It has become the need of people just like television, telephone or other electronic devices at home. It solves the human problems very quickly as well as accurately. • Speed The computer is a very high speed electronic device. The operations on the data inside the computer are performed according to the instructions at very high speed. Computer can perform millions or billions of operations on the data in one second. • Arithmetic & Logical operations A computer can perform arithmetic & logical operations. In arithmetic operation, it performs the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division on the numeric data. In logical operation, it compares the numerical data as well as alphabetic data. Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    11. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER • Accuracy Computer is an accurate device. It gives accurate result. However, the result depends upon the correct input data and set of instructions given to the computer. If input data is incorrect, the resulting output will be incorrect. It is called garbage in garbage out (GIGO). • Reliability Computer can perform complicated calculations without creating any problem and produces consistent (reliable) results. • Storage Computer has internal storage (memory) as well as external or secondary storage. In secondary storage, a large amount of data and programs can be stored permanently. The stored data and programs are available any time for processing. Similarly, information download from the Internet can be saved on the storage media. Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    12. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER • Retrieving data & programs The data and programs stored on the storage media can be retrieved very quickly for further processing. It is also very important feature of a computer. • Automation A computer can automatically perform operations without interrupting the user during the operation. It controls automatically different devices attached with the computer. It executes automatically the program instructions one by one. • Versatile Versatile means flexible. Computer can perform different kinds of tasks one by one or simultaneously. It is the most important feature of computer. At one moment you are playing game on computer, the next moment you are composing and sending e-mail. In colleges and universities computers are used to deliver lectures to the students. Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    13. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER • Communications A computer has the capability of communicating with other computers in a computer network. Nowadays, computers are mostly used to exchange messages or data through computer networks all over the word via internet. • Diligence (throughoutness) A computer can continuously work for hours without creating any error. It does not get tired while working. After hours of work it performs the operations with the same accuracy as well as speed as the first one. • Precision Computers are not only fast and consistent but they also perform operations very accurately. E.g. In manual calculations and rounding fractional values can change the actual result. In computer, you can keep the accuracy and precision upto the level you desire. Thus calculations remain always accurate. Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    14. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER • No feelings Computer is an electronic machine. It has no feelings. It detects objects on the basis of instructions given to it. Based on our feelings, taste, knowledge and experience, we can make certain decisions and judgements in our daily life. On the outer hand, computers cannot make such judgements on their own. Their judgements are totally based upon the instructions given to them. • Consistency People often have difficulty to repeat the same actions again and again with the same way and to get the same result. E.g. an officer feels difficulty to repeat a discussion with his subordinates again and again. Computer can repeat the same actions consistently without loosing its concentration. E.g. • To run a spell checker for checking spelling in a document. • To deliver a lecture through computer in a classroom. Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    15. USES OF COMPUTER

    16. USES OF COMPUTER Computer is playing a very important role in every field of life. It has changed the way of life. Computers are everywhere such as at home, at offices and at schools/colleges/ universities. They are used to perform different tasks quickly and easily. So a lot of time and efforts of the people are saved due to the use of computers. 1. Education Education is the process of developing knowledge through instructions. The instructions are received from people such as parents, teachers etc and from printed material such as books, journals etc. Most of the colleges use computers in classrooms and Labs to teach students. Many educators prefer to deliver their lectures by computer – based presentations. In schools, colleges and universities, students use software packages to complete their assignments. Continue Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    17. USES OF COMPUTER There are three methods used to educate the students. • Computer-Aided Learning (CAL). • Computer – Based Training (CBT). • Web-Based Training (WBT) • Computer – Aided Learning (CAL) Computer Aided Learning is the use of information technology to assist in the teaching and learning processes. The use of computer in education can reduce time that is spent on preparing teaching materials. It can also reduce the administrative load associated with teaching and research. A special device called the multimedia projector is used for this purpose. Continue Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    18. USES OF COMPUTER • Computer- Based Training (CBT) Computer - Based Training (CBT) is also called Computer – Aided Instruction (CAI). In this method, computer is used (along with multimedia tools) as an aid to teach the students in the classroom. The lectures already recorded, are delivered to the students in the classroom through computer. This method of teaching is like a traditional classroom training method but it has the following additional benefits. • Students can easily obtain new skills. • Training times can be reduced. • Planning and time table problems can be reduced or eliminated. • It is not costly method. • It is very attractive method to deliver lectures to students. • Lectures can be repeated again and again. Continue Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    19. USES OF COMPUTER • Web-Based Training (WBT) The Web-Based Training is type of CBT that uses Internet Technology. It means that many websites provide online education. There are many websites that provide a lot of information about various topics. These websites also provide online lectures & tutorials for the students. The students can download information from these websites. 2.Business The use of computer in business is very important. Today, in global markets, it is impossible to run the business without the use of computer technology. In every organization, there are many business activities that are mostly performed through computer. • Marketing • Stock Exchange • Banking • Departmental Store. • Office Automation Continue Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    20. USES OF COMPUTER • Marketing In business, computer is very useful for the marketing of products of an organization. Many marketing applications are available that can be used to provide information about the products to the customers. Computer is also used for advertising the products and to maintain the record of products. • Stock Exchanges Stock exchanges are the important places for businessmen. Today, stock markets around the world are mostly computerized. Many stock markets launched the computerized systems. These systems make it possible for stockbrokers to do all their trading electronically. Stockbrokers are interconnected through data communication networks. They submit and receive offers (bids) using their interconnected computer. Continue Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    21. USES OF COMPUTER • Office Automation Office Automation (OA) refers to the process of automating office tasks. In an office, different types of tasks are performed using computer. E.g. • Decision – making • Data manipulation • Document handling • Communication • Data storage Many offices use the following computer-based system to perform various tasks. • Document management system • Message handling system • Office support system Continue Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    22. USES OF COMPUTER • Banks Today, most of the banks are computerized. Computerized banking has provided several benefits and saved the time of customers. The accounts of customers are maintained through computer. The cheques of customers are processed through computer. The cheques are read by MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader). Some banks use ATM (Automated Teller Machine) network to withdraw cash. Some banks provide the facility of credit cards that can be used to purchase different items from departmental stores without paying net cash. • Departmental Stores In departmental stores, computer is used to perform different operations. E.g. the record of products for sale is maintained through computer, the bill of customer is prepared through computer. In departmental stores, a bar code is printed on most of the products. This bar code contains information about the product such as name of product and its price. This bar code is read through the device known as bar-code reader. Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    23. USES OF COMPUTER 3. Entertainment Computer is also playing very important role for the entertainment of human beings. Computer has become a need of human beings for entertainment at their homes. E.g. • To play video game at home • To see movie films and to listen music. • To download movies and songs through internet. • You can listen music while you work on the computer. 4. Publishing In the field of publishing, computer is playing very important role such as publishing the books, magazines and newspapers etc. The publishers use computer and work processors and graphics software to designing pages of the books or magazines. Many writers and publishers use Internet to collect information that is used for compiling a new book or magazine. Some websites allow you to download an entire book. The journalists also use the notebook computers and digital cameras to capture and record news. Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    24. USES OF COMPUTER 5. E-Commerce E-commerce (electronic commerce) or e-trade or e-business is a financial business transaction conducted electronically between business partners over computer network (such as internet). With e-commerce, transactions can occur instantaneously and globally. This saves times for participants on both ends. The users can buy, sell and exchange the products or services via computer network. Today, many mobile computers can also access internet without land lines. Following services are mostly used in e-commerce or e-business. • E-mail • Video conferencing • Electronic shopping • Electronic Banking. Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    25. USES OF COMPUTER 6. Health Care Every area of the medical field uses computers, such as laboratories, research offices, scanning, monitoring, pharmacy etc, which are helping the doctors to diagnose diseases and many other purposes. E.g. • Maintain patient history & other records. • Patient monitoring • ICU (Intensive Care Unit) • Operation Theater • Recovery Room • Medical Ward • ECG (Electrocardiography) • Diagnosis of Diseases • Telemedicine Through this you can access medical centres using computers videoconferencing. • Computer- Aided Surgery (CAS). Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    26. USES OF COMPUTER 7. Travelling Computer is also playing very important role in travelling by car or by airplane to arrive easily and safely at your destination. Today many vehicles use special electronic equipments in the car that controls various activities of the car. These cars have GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver that reports your vehicle’s location. These cars also have “Onboard Navigation system” that have following features. • Tracks the vehicle if it is stolen. • Provides emergency services. • Provides directions. • Provides roadside assistance • Performs remote diagnostics if a warning light appears on the dashboard. • To make hotel and restaurant reservations. Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)

    27. USES OF COMPUTER 8. Home Like other electronic devices used in home such as TV, washing machine etc. computer has also become the need of every person at home. It is used at home as well as educational tool for children. But is also used at home to keep records, write letters , prepare budgets, connect with others to send and to get information on the internet, to watch films and to listen music. 9. Agriculture In agriculture field, computer is playing very important role. The agriculture scientists use computer for analyzing the agricultural data. The student of agriculture also uses computer to get latest information about agriculture on the Internet. The farmers also use computer to get information about crops and to calculate bills cost per acre as well as to get information about crops market prices. Introduction of Computer (Civil Engineering Department)