Chapter 4 (Part A) : Eukaryotic Cells - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 4 (Part A) : Eukaryotic Cells
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Chapter 4 (Part A) : Eukaryotic Cells

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  1. Chapter 4 (Part A) : Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cell structures: Eukaryote = organisms consisting of one or more complex cells containing organelles Animals, plants, fungi, protists are eukaryotic

  2. Parts -- 1. Cell walls: animal cells don’t have them; plants, fungi, some protists do

  3. 2. Plasma membrane: selectively-permeable barrier to environment; phospholipids and proteins

  4. 3. Nucleus: largest membrane-bound organelle in a cell; contains DNA + proteins (histones) in the form of chromosomes; covered by a double membrane with nuclear pores; where the genetic information is stored

  5. 4. Endoplasmic reticulum: 2 types – rough (with ribosomes) and smooth stacks of membranes from nucleus out into cytoplasm “factories” where many cellular molecules are made

  6. 5. Golgi apparatus:“packaging and shipping” areas of the cell; stacks of membranes with vesicles to the outside of the stacks; molecules are processed, packaged into vesicles, and moved to correct location in cell

  7. Nucleus  ER  Golgi apparatus

  8. 6. Lysosomes: special vesicles that contain digestive enzymes and acid fuse with other vesicles functions: recycle old molecules and organelles lyse infecting bacteria, etc.; Mycobacterium tuberculosis prevents fusion of lysosome with vesicle in cell containing the bacteria; the bacteria then ride along with the immune system cell (macrophage) Macrophage bacterium lysosome nucleus

  9. Macrophage now presenting bacterial antigens

  10. Ribosomes:made of RNA and proteinshave no membranesite of protein synthesis80S in cells; 70S in mitochondria of cells Ribosome sculpture at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, NY

  11. 8. Mitochondria: where aerobic respiration occurs; where much ATP is made; contains its own DNA and ribosomes (70S like bacteria); it is believed that mitochondria evolved from bacteria taken in by a bigger cell

  12. 9. Chloroplasts: In plants and some protists Site of photosynthesis Evolved from photosynthetic bacteria

  13. 10. Cytoplasm: about 75% water, used to absorb heat from many reactions in a cell; dissolved and suspended molecules in cytoplasm11. Cytoskeleton: “scaffolding” of cell which holds it into a shape and attaches this cell to another loss of cytoskeleton components may lead to cancer– rounding up Fibroblasts Microtubule endings labeled

  14. 12. Flagella: move in a complex, whip-like motion13. Cilia:hair-like appendages; move mucus. Flagella video clip

  15. A SEM of rabbit tracheal airway cilia   http://users.umassmed.edu/michael.sanderson/mjslab/image

  16. Video clip of cilia in respiratory tract beating http://users.umassmed.edu/michael.sanderson/mjslab/image

  17. The End