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Unit 6  Learning . Classical Conditioning. Extinction – the CR will gradually weaken and disappear when CS is presented in the absence of the US Spontaneous recovery: the CR will suddenly appear in response to a CS

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Unit 6 learning

Unit 6 Learning 

Classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning

  • Extinction – the CR will gradually weaken and disappear when CS is presented in the absence of the US

    • Spontaneous recovery: the CR will suddenly appear in response to a CS

    • Reconditioning: when CS and US are paired together the CR is likely to be learned more quickly

  • Classical Conditioning

  • Ivan Pavlov – Russian scientist who did the famous dog experiments

    • UR: reflexive behavior

    • US: Stimulus that causes unconditioned response

    • CR: happens after repeated pairings with the neutral stimulus and US

    • CS: previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a US and causes the CR

Classical conditioning1
Classical Conditioning

  • Stimulus generalization: CR elicited by stimuli similar to original CS

  • Stimulus discrimination: ability to differentiate among related stimuli

  • Higher-order conditioning: a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a CR when it is paired with a CS that already produces the CR

  • Stimulus characteristics that strengthen CR

    • More often the CS is paired with the US the stronger the CR

    • Stronger US will typically lead to faster conditioning than a weaker one

  • Examples:

    • __________________

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Operant conditioning

  • B.F. Skinner

    • Believed that human behavior is completely determined by environmental and genetic influences

    • O.C. is the process of learning through punishment and reward

  • Operant Conditioning Principles

  • Positive and negative reinforcement

    • Positive Reinforcement: introduction of a something strengthens response

    • Negative Reinforcement: The removal of something that strengthens response

  • Operant Conditioning

  • Thorndike

    • Law of Effect: We are more likely to repeat responses that have satisfying effects and are less likely to repeat those that lead to discomfort

Operant conditioning1

  • Primary and secondary reinforces

    • Primary: satisfy basic needs

    • Secondary: work from association with primary (need food, want ice cream)

  • Shaping: learning that involves the reinforcement of increasingly closer desired response

  • Extinction: Weakening and eventual elimination of a response that occurs when the response is no longer reinforced

Operant conditioning2

  • Schedules of Reinforcement

    • Continuous reinforcement, reinforcement follows each instance of operant response

    • Partial reinforcement: only a portion of responses is reinforced

      • Ratio Schedules: reinforcement is based on number of responses

      • Interval Schedules: reinforcement is based on the timing of responses

        • Fixed-ratio

        • Variable-ratio

        • Fixed-interval

        • Variable-interval

Operant conditioning3

  • Punishment

    • Something unpleasant follows a behavior

    • Introduce an unpleasant stimulus or remove a pleasant one

    • Objective: decrease occurrence of undesirable behavior(s)

    • Drawbacks of punishment

      • May suppress but does not eliminate undesirable behavior

      • Does not teach more preferable behavior

      • Can create anger, fear and lowered self-esteem

      • Used frequently, may become out of control

      • Does not model desirable behaviors for children

Other learning
Other Learning

  • Insight Learning

    • Process of mentally working through a problem until the sudden realization of a solution occurs: the “Aha!” moment

    • Idea is that your mind will work through various ways of looking at the problem and eventually finding the answer

Two young women go in and apply for a job. They have the same date of birth, the same biological parents and they look exactly alike. When the employer asks them if they are twins, they honestly say “No.”

  • Latent Learning

    • Learning that happens without apparent reinforcement, but also is not seen until a reinforcement is presented