TACTICAL GAMES MODEL Teaching Games for Understanding
What’s common about these learning activities: Soccer Unit • Play 3v3 on small field (30x20); goal is 5 consecutive passes (1 pt.); alternate possession after each score Badminton Unit • Play singles, serve underhand; goals: to make your opponent run to have to return your shot, use overhand and underhand shots to keep rally going as long as possible
Kickball or Softball Unit • 5v5 game, situation is 0-2 outs, no runners on base, defensive players on the infield, rotate from defense to offense after all team members have batted; goals: batter focus on placing ball so that you can get on 1st base (1 pt; defense – throw to first ahead of the runner
How are the preceding activities different from the following? • With a partner, 10-15’ apart, pass the soccer ball back and forth using the outside of your foot; try to get one-touch control and set up Cues: Use the outside of your foot, point your toe inward; strike the ball through its center
Use half the court and the overhead clear shot. Start at the service line and try to hit shots that move your partner back. Try to get your partner to the baseline and hit 10 consecutive overhead shots to the baseline. Cues: Watch the shuttle, contact the shuttle with arm at full extension, hit the shuttle high and deep.
Cones have been set up on the infield. Take batting practice and try to hit the ball between the cones. Rotate after 7 cuts/hits. Defensive players (4-5: pitcher, one on second, and rest in outfield) field the ball & throw to 2nd base, then to pitcher. Cues: Watch the ball, keep head down & still, lead with the hands, contact ball in front of the plate with arms extended.
Answer • The first 3 tasks focus students to develop tactics or strategies that will allow them to be successful in achieving game goals. • The last 3 tasks focus students to develop specific skills outside of a game context. The Tactical Games Model is designed to develop both.
Tactical Games Model Overview • Based on a sequence of developmentally appropriate game and game-like learning activities that focus on tactical problems for students to solve. • Teacher designs simulations of game situations, progressing from simple to more complex.
Main Theme of Tactical Games Model • To facilitate a deep level of understanding that can be applied in game situations and other activities.
Model Goals • Promote skill development & tactical knowledge needed for competent game performance • Learn situational applications for the given activity • To eliminate questions, “Why are we doing this?” or “When can we play a game?”
Tactical Model Objectives Students are able to: • Apply tactics effectively • Acquire competence in game playing by linking game tactics with skill development. • Solve problems and make decisions while playing.
Key Features of Tactical Games • Tactical problems are created and students solve • Assumes that motor-skill performance will be more proficient if it is tied to cognitive learning • Students learn “what” to do before learning “how” to do it • Questions are used to create link between game tactics and skill practice • Games are be categorized for transfer of tactics • E.g., tactics for soccer can be used in hockey
Model Foundations • Based on Constructivist Learning Theory • Cognitive learning theory - allows learners to create meaning based on previous knowledge and active engagement with the content • Rationale • Responds to student desire to play games • Promotes greater interest to learn games, more understanding of game play, and improved ability to play games.
Assessment in Tactical Games Model • Should focus on students’ abilities to make and execute tactical decisions while playing a game. • Can be done by: • objective game statistics. • E.g., # of shots taken, where taken from • evaluation of students’ decision making and performance abilities. • GPAI – assesses students’ decisions in both execution and support roles
What are the tactical problems? 3 Main problems occur in games: • Scoring • Preventing Scoring • Re-starting play Let’s look at these in more detail – refer to your handout.
The Game-Practice Task-Game Sequence Basketball – Tactical Problem: Creating space in the attack • Game – 2 v 2, ½-court, possession game Goal: Support the player with the ball Conditions: Complete at least three passes before shooting, one pt. for 3 consecutive passes, 2 pts. for FG
Questions to ask students: How were you able to support the player with the ball? Is a zigzag or curved pathway better when performing a cut? • What is the angle of these cuts using letters of the alphabet? • Why are V- or L-cuts better than curved cuts? • What did you do when your defender was closely guarding you? • When did you use a V-cut? L-Cut?
2. Practice Task (grps. of 4) • O1 completes ball fake, jab step, and pass to O2 who makes V-cut as O1 ball fakes • O2 catches ball in triple-threat position using jump stop • D1 & D2 play passive defense • Repeat 3x, then rotate • Repeat sequence using L-cut
3. Game – 2 v 2, ½-court, possession game Goal: Support the player with the ball using V- & L-cuts to get open Conditions: Complete at least three passes before shooting, one pt. for 3 consecutive passes, 2 pts. for FG
Your Turn • Work with a partner • Select a sport and one tactical problem (not one presented today or on your handout) • Create a sequence of game-practice task-game for the problem you selected • Identify the questions you would ask after engaging students in the first game