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Meteorology Winds. Reference. From the Ground Up Chapter 6.4: Winds Pages 130 - 136. Introduction. Wind is the horizontal movement of air in different areas and altitudes. It is important that pilots know where winds are, how strong and from what direction they flow, and how they change.

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reference
Reference

From the Ground Up

Chapter 6.4:

Winds

Pages 130 - 136

introduction
Introduction
  • Wind is the horizontal movement of air in different areas and altitudes.
  • It is important that pilots know where winds are, how strong and from what direction they flow, and how they change.
outline
Outline
  • Wind Types
  • Wind Speed and Direction
  • Wind Effects
winds
Winds
  • Wind is horizontal movement of air
  • Heating of Earth creates pressure differences, air flows from high to low, therefore wind
  • Upper Level Winds flow parallel to isobars and from high to low pressure areas
  • Surface Winds are below 3000 ft, and are slowed by surface friction
land sea breezes
Land & Sea Breezes
  • Sea Breeze
    • Land heats faster than water during day (lower pressure)
    • Wind blows from water towards land
land sea breezes1
Land & Sea Breezes
  • Land Breeze
    • Land cools faster than water at night (higher pressure)
    • Wind blows from land towards water
mountain winds
Mountain Winds
  • Katabatic Wind (AKA Mountain Breeze)
    • At night, slope cools, air becomes denser, wind flows down from mountain
mountain winds1
Mountain Winds
  • Anabatic Wind (AKA Valley Breeze)
    • During day, slope heats, air becomes less dense, flows up from valley
mountain winds2
Mountain Winds
  • Mountain Wave
    • Air deflected after flowing over mountain oscillates (or bounces) up and down violently in a wave pattern.
gusts and squalls
Gusts and Squalls
  • Gust
    • Sudden and brief increase in wind speed and direction (several seconds)
    • Usually caused by mechanical turbulence
  • Squall
    • Sudden increase in wind speed and direction, but last longer then a gust (several minutes)
    • Usually caused by fast moving cold front or thunderstorm
wind speed direction
Wind Speed & Direction
  • Veering is increase in wind direction
  • Backing is decrease in wind direction
  • Wind veers and increases with altitude (due to lack of surface friction)
  • Diurnal Variation
    • Wind backs and decreases at night
    • Wind veers and increases during day (more ground heating)
wind effects
Wind Effects
  • Eddies
    • Swirling air or vortices
    • Produced by friction between moving air and ground
wind effects1
Wind Effects
  • Dust Devils
    • Super-heated concentrated lows on hot, clear, stable, days
    • Made visible by dust or sand
wind effects2
Wind Effects
  • Tornadoes
    • Very concentrated, violent lows formed in unstable weather
wind effects3
Wind Effects
  • Jet Stream
    • Narrow bands of high-altitude and high-speed winds
    • Normally 2 or 3 over North America
next lesson
Next Lesson

4.5 – Meteorology

Humidity, Temperature & Stability

From the Ground Up

Chapter 6.5:

Humidity, Temperature and Stability

Pages 136 - 140