Acid-Base Reactions. Strong and Weak Acids Titration Common Acid Names. Textbook section 4.3. What is an ACID?. Defined: ACID Produces H + ions in water solution BASE Produces OH - ions in water solution. Acid Characteristics: Sour Taste (lemon)
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Textbook section 4.3
HCl (aq) H+ (aq) + Cl-(aq)
What are the names of these acids?
Check the partner of the “H” for a hint.
These must be memorized.
HB H+ + B-
Double arrow means reversible or it does not go to completion.
The equilibrium includes both products AND reactants.
Compare # of HCl ions in solution to HF ions in solution. Each w/ 1.0 M concentration.
Produce OH- ions by reacting with the water.
NH3 aq+ H2O aq NH4+ aq + OH- aq
Pulling an H+, and leaving OH- behind.
We often write water HOH, to easily keep track of this water reaction
Include: ammonia NH3
Weak bases are weak electrolytes. The bulb will light up but it will be dim
Consider Nitric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide
H+ + NO3- + Na+ + OH-
Since they are “strong”, they fully ionize
Neutralization produces Water and a salt.
The acid HF partially dissociates to H+ + F-
Then the Base NaOH, which has dissociated to produce OH- ions (plus the Na+ ions)
The H+ and OH- combine to from water
The weak base gets “protonated”
The strong acid is already dissociated into H+ and B-.
Consider ammonia and Hydrochloric Acid
NH3 + H+ + Cl- NH4+ + Cl-
Methylamine and Nitric Acid
CH3NH2 + H+ CH3NH3+
Poem That Makes Sense After Studying Predicting Reactions:Johnny finding life a bore, drank some H2SO4.Johnny's father, an M.D., gave him CaCO3.Johnny's neutralized, it'strue,But now he's full of CO2.
An standardizedacid (known concentration) may be used to determine the
unknown strength of a base. (or visa-versa)
Using an indicator (solution that changes color)
you can know when the added solution is exactly equal to the unknown.
this is known as the EQUILVALENCE POINT.
Objective: Determine the equivalence point.
Equivalence point nOH- = nH+
If 25.00mL of 0.0800M NaOH is needed to react with 10.00 mL of HCl. What is the molarity of HCl?
In this case the formula could be written MOH- VOH- = MH+VH+
Acids put H+ into water Bases put OH- into water
Acids donate protons Bases accept protons