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British Colonialism in India

British Colonialism in India

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British Colonialism in India

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  1. British Colonialism in India

  2. What is Colonialism? • The policy of acquiring and maintaining colonies for exploitation

  3. Why would countries do this? • Natural resources • Places to sell their goods • Land for an expanding population • Be stronger, better, larger than their rivals

  4. Europeans in South Asia First in = Portugal Built a trading empire along coast of Asia – including Goa on India’s western coast Brought Catholic Missionaries. Next = the Dutch (Netherlands)

  5. Economic Interest began in 1600’s British East India Co. set up trading posts in Bombay, Madras, & Calcutta The British & India

  6. Early East India Co. Trade • English traded Gold & Silver for Indian Goods like Cotton, Silk, and Tea • Textiles (Cloth) the most important good sent from India to England • Calico, Dungarees, Gingham, Khaki, Madras & Shawl are all Indian words that entered the English language through this trade.

  7. Internal conflicts in India allowed the East India Co. to gain control of more and more land eventually ruling Southern India, Ganges Plain and Bangladesh

  8. East India Co. ruled like they were their own country/government Private army headed by British officers and staffed by Sepoys (Indian soldiers) Set up a code of laws and court system Ruled directly or through local rulers under treaty 1757-1858

  9. “Jewel In the Crown” • India: • Provided raw materials for British industry (cotton, jute, indigo) • Provided opium to trade with China for tea • Had 300 million people (they should be able to buy lots of British stuff) • Had restrictions set up by the British that prevented the economy from working on it’s own (only trade with British, can only buy British goods)

  10. The Railroad • Built the third largest rail system in the world • Increased the area where raw materials could be grown since they could be transported easily • Allowed more British goods to penetrate India • Increased production of Cash Crops meaning less food for local consumption

  11. Darjeeling Railroad, 1880

  12. Sepoy Mutiny

  13. Sepoy Mutiny • Rebellion against the British • Took one year for British to regain control • The people could not unite against the British due to weak leadership and serious splits between Hindus and Muslims (Sikhs were loyal to the British)

  14. British Government officially takes over the rule of India from 1857-1947

  15. Queen Victoria took the title of Empress of India in 1876 • British Government ruled mostly through Direct control. • The Rebellion left deep distrust between Indians and the British

  16. Positive Railroad Roads Telephone Bridges Irrigation Improved health Education opportunities Ended local warfare Negative No local control/power No local industries or manufacturing Loss of self sufficiency Famine due to growing of cash crops not food Effect of British Colonialism

  17. Nationalism • Deep devotion to one’s nationality • More than patriotism • Can unite people together • Can cause competition between nationalities and countries

  18. Indian National Congress Created in 1885 Mostly Hindus First focused on concerns for Indians Called for Independence Muslim League Created in 1906 Mostly Muslims Nationalist Groups

  19. People to know for Gandhi Video Jawaharlal Nehru Leader of Indian national Congress before Independence Mohammed Ali Jinnah Leader of Muslim League before Independence Mohandas K. Gandhi