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Chapter 3. Biology and Behavior. Puzzles. What common expressions are hidden in the following puzzles?. NOON GOOD HE’S HIMSELF KNEE LIGHT ii ii oo oo WEAR LONG. MAN MOON SLEEPING JOB 0 M.D. Ph. D. D.D.S KCART. Fill-in-the-Blanks. 1. ST_T_ _ _ _ _ _B_RT_.

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chapter 3
Chapter 3

Biology and

Behavior

slide3

What common expressions are hidden in the following puzzles?

NOON GOOD

HE’S HIMSELF

KNEELIGHT

ii iioo oo

WEARLONG

MANMOON

SLEEPING JOB

0M.D.Ph. D.D.D.S

KCART

slide4

Fill-in-the-Blanks

1. ST_T_ _ _ _ _ _B_RT_

2. T_ _NS_ _ _T_T_ _N

3. S_ _ _R_AN

4. _O NO_ _N_ _R

5. F_ _T_ _LL F_ _L_

6. _ _RS_ _LA_ _ _ _ _L

7. _ H_ _KS_IVI_ _

8. _L_ _S_ D_ N_ _ _ _ _D T_ _ _N_ _ _LS!

slide5

Test for DementiaBelow are four (4) questions and a bonus question. You have to answer them instantly. You can't take your time, answer all of them immediately. OK?Let's find out just how clever you really are....

First Question: You are participating in a race. You overtake the second person. What position are you in?

Answer: If you answered that you are first, then you areabsolutely wrong! If you overtake the second person and you take his place, you are second!

Try not to screw up next time.Now, answer the second question, but don't take as much time as you took for the first question, OK?

slide6

Second Question:If you overtake the last person, then you are . . . ?(scroll down)

Answer: If you answered that you are second to last, then you are wrong again.

How can you overtake the LAST person?

You're not very good at this, are you?

slide7

Third Question:Very tricky arithmetic!

Note: This must be done in your head only.Do NOT use paper and pencil or a calculator.

Take 1000 and add 40 to it. Now add another 1000. Now add 30. Add another 1000. Now add 20! Now add another 1000Now add 10. What is the total?

Did you get 5000?

The correct answer is actually 4100.If you don't believe it, check it with a calculator! Today is definitely not your day, is it? Maybe you'll get the last question right.  ...maybe.

slide8

Fourth Question: Mary's father has five daughters: 1. Nana, 2. Nene, 3. Nini, 4. Nono.

What is the name of the fifth daughter?

Did you answerNunu?

NO!Of course it isn't.Her name isMary.Read the question again!

slide9

Okay, now the bonus round:

A mute person goes into a shop and wants to buy a toothbrush. By imitating the action of brushing his teeth, he successfully expresses himself to the shopkeeper and the purchase is done.

Next, a blind man who wants to buy a pair of sunglassescomes into the shop; how does HE indicate what he wants?

He just has to open his mouth and ask.

slide10

Why?

Why?

Why?

chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives:
  • How messages are transmitted by neurons and the functions of the peripheral nervous system
  • Major structures of the brain and the functions of each structure
  • How hormones secreted by the major glands of the endocrine system affect the body
  • Role of chromosomes and genes, and the study methods of heredity.
brain communication
Brain Communication
  • CNS and PNS (2)

1) Central Nervous System (CNS) – brain & spinal cord.  

2) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – nerves in the limbs & trunk that carry information in/out of the brain.

  • Neuron
  • Dendrites and Axons
  • Synapse
  • Neurotransmitters
    • Acetylcholine
    • Dopamine
    • Endorphins
slide14

Neurons - Building Blocks

• Building blocks of the brain• 100 billion neurons• 30,000 on a pinhead

Neurons are the building blocks of your brain. They communicate with each other thousands of times each second.

slide15

Neuron Parts

• Soma: body of the cell

 • Dendrites: receive messages

 • Axon: sends messages

slide16

Neurotransmitters

  • Neurotransmitters are the messengers that travel between one brain cell and another.
  • They are chemical signals that neurons use to talk to each other, which is what makes your brain work.
  • They help determine how you feel, think and act.
slide17

CNS & PNS

A. Central Nervous System

B. Peripheral Nervous System

B1. Somatic Nervous System

B2. Autonomic Nervous System

1. Cerebrum

2. Brainstem

3. Cerebellum

4. Spinal cord

slide18

The Nervous System

  • Central Nervous System =Brain + Spinal Cord
  • Peripheral Nervous System =Nerves to rest of body
  • • “Sensory” nerves carry messages from the body to the brain (sensation)
  • • “Motor” nerves carry messages from the brain to the body (muscle movement)

The Central Nervous System

Spinal Cord

slide19

The Peripheral Nervous System

Somatic Nervous System

vs.

Autonomic Nervous System

Effect of Chemical Weapons on CNS and PNS

parts of the brain 3 2 overview all below
Parts of the Brain 3-2 (overview all below)
  • hindbrain

medulla, pons, cerebellum

  • midbrain

reticular activating system

  • forebrain

(next slide)

slide21

Brainstem:The brainstem regulates heart rate, breathing, swallowing, blinking, digesting and more.

slide22

Pons – regulates body movement, attention, sleep and alertness

Hindbrain

Medulla – involved in vital functions (heart rate, blood pressure, breathing)

cerebellum

Hindbrain

Cerebellum

Coordinates

most muscles

learned skills

movement and timing

slide24

Hindbrain

Cerebellum: Switching Station:Your cerebellum is a busy switching station. It receives messages from most of the muscles in your body. It communicates with the other parts of the brain, and then sends messages about movement and balance back to your body.

reticular activating system

ReticularActivatingSystem

Midbrain

Regulates the activity level of the body (controls central nervous system activity, including attention, sleep and arousal)

alcohol s effect on brain
Alcohol’s Effect on Brain

Alcohol turns cells OFF:

  • in RAS (become sleepy)
  • in speech area (slurring)
  • in cerebellum (motor control)
guest speaker
Guest speaker
  • Kathy Herring cell 242.1503
  • Kim Rainer cell 858.1910
thalamus

Forebrain

Thalamus

Relay station for sensory stimulation

hypothalamus

Forebrain

Hypothalamus

Regulates basic needs (hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, caring for offspring and aggression) and emotions such as pleasure, fear, rage, and sexuality

slide35

Limbic System

Forebrain

Learning and memory, emotion, hunger, sex and aggression

cerebral cortex
Cerebral Cortex

Forebrain

Responsible for very high-level thought

slide37

Corpus callosum

  • Nerve bundle that connects left and right hemispheres
  • Reason for and effect of surgically severing corpus callosum

Pieces of Mind video: Split Brain (start at 1:20)

Forebrain

lobes of the cerebral cortex
Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
  • frontal lobe
    • motor strip
    • frontal assoc. area
  • parietal lobe
    • sensory strip
  • occipital lobe (seeing “stars”)
    • vision
  • temporal lobe (national anthem)
    • hearing
tasks of the hemispheres
Tasks of the Hemispheres
  • Left hemisphere

most language functions logic problem solving math computation

  • Right Hemisphere

imagination art feelings spatial relations

slide40

How Smart Is Your Right Foot?

While sitting at your desk, lift your right foot off the floor and make clockwise circles with it.

Now, while doing this, draw the number "6" in the air with your right hand. What happens?

examining the brain frontal association area sense of envir personality
Examining the Brain: Frontal Association Area (sense of envir. & personality)
  • Motor Strip Dominance inventory
  • (demonstration of frontal association area at work)
  • Video module #2: Phineas Gage (11:20)
slide43

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT scan)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

slide44

The Cerebral Cortex:These special scans use computerized x-rays and magnetic fields to show the parts of the brain. The scans give doctors and scientists a picture of how the brain is working.

slide45

Positron Emission Tomography

PET is one of the newest, most advanced methods for studying organs in the body such as the brain. Like an X-ray, or MRI scan PET is painless and relatively noninvasive (i.e., no surgery or opening of the body is required). Unlike X-rays and traditional MRI, PET does not produce a picture of the "structure" or anatomy of the brain, but rather it gives an image of  brain "function" or physiology. In other words, it can be used to image what the brain is doing.

brain model observation
Brain Model Observation
  • Form groups of 4.
  • Define terms on sheet.
  • In 4 minutes, groups examine model of brain to locate each item.
endocrine system 3 3

Endocrine System 3-3

The system containing all the glands and their chemical messages

looking at the endocrine system aka glandular system
Looking at the Endocrine System(aka,Glandular System)
  • Hormones
  • Glands
  • Pituitary Gland
  • Thyroid Gland
  • Adrenal Glands
  • Gonads

The system containing all the glands and their chemical messages

hormones

Hormones

Chemical regulators distributed in the bloodstream

Match up with receptors that have the same molecular structure (target cell)

glands

Glands

Storage receptacles throughout the body that contain hormones

effect of too much little hgh
Effect of too much/little HGH?

At just 1’ 11” tall, she is dwarfed by her neighbor's baby, but Jyoti Amge is 15 years old.

The teenager, who is the world's smallest girl according to the Indian Book of Records, has a form of dwarfism called achondroplasia. Now fully grown, she weighs just 11 lbs.

slide54

Dictionary:gigantism

  •   (jī-găn'tĭz'əm)
  • 1. The quality or state of being gigantic; abnormally large size.
  • Excessive growth of the body or any of its parts, especially as a result of oversecretion of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland. Also called giantism.

Dictionary:

gigantism

  (jī-găn'tĭz'əm)

pituitary gland

Pituitary Gland

Master gland that controls all other glands of the body

Secretes the growth hormone

thyroid gland

hyper-active vs.hypo-active

Thyroid Gland

Controls and regulates metabolism, the speed at which the body operates.

adrenal glands sorry about that
Adrenal Glands(Sorry about that.)

Prepare body for emergency

Physical effects

1.

2.

3.

4.

gonads
Gonads

Reproductive organs

Female sex hormone

estrogen

Male sex hormone

testosterone

slide61

Heredity

traits - mental and physical

slide62

Genes -

basic building blocks of heredity found in threadlike structures called chromosomes

slide65

Chromosomes

23 singles combine at conception into 23 pairs

slide66

Current “life” issues

Abortion

Euthanasia

Cloning (next slide)

slide68

CNN Segment 2 Video: Twin Studies

Twins:monozygotic or dizygotic?

slide70

Chapter 3 Conclusion

Chapter 3 Review

Pictionary (3x5 cards)

Chapter 3 Test

slide71

Question

Draw

Team #1A – Which system involves thinking, dreaming and feeling?

neuron

Team #2A - Name four lobes of the brain.

corpus callosum

Team #1B - Define nature vs. nurture.

twins

Team #2B - What is another name for the “glandular system”?

gonads