Exploring Mendelian Genetics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

exploring mendelian genetics n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Exploring Mendelian Genetics PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Exploring Mendelian Genetics

play fullscreen
1 / 46
Exploring Mendelian Genetics
96 Views
Download Presentation
xiomara-lamorena
Download Presentation

Exploring Mendelian Genetics

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Exploring Mendelian Genetics http://www.eslkidstuff.com/images/tallshort.gif http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/genetics%20tutorial.htm

  2. Must know terms Trait—specific characteristic varies from one individual to another example height Hybrid—offspring of crosses between parents with different traits Dominant—expressed trait Recessive—non expressed trait: present only in the absence of the dominant

  3. Must know terms • Homozygous—individuals with two identical alleles for a particular trait –true breeding • Heterozygous—individuals with two different alleles for a particular trait—hybrid • Phenotype—Physical characteristics • Genotype—Genetic makeup

  4. Must know terms • Allele—Different forms of a gene • P generation—Parental generation • F1 generation—first generation after P • F2 generation—second generation after P • Probability—is the likelihood that a particular event will occur

  5. GENES are more complicated than Mendel thought ENVIRONMENT influences ____________________________ the ________________________. = ________________________ Genes ________ the ______ for development, but how plan unfolds also _______ on ______________conditions. expression of genes “Nature vs Nurture” provide plan depends environmental

  6. GENES are more complicated than Mendel thought Some traits have ____________ allele __________ = ____________________ EX: blood type Allele choices ___ ___ ___ choices MORE than 2 MULTIPLE ALLELE TRAIT B O A

  7. GENES are more complicated than MENDEL thought Some traits are determined by ____________________________ = __________________ EX: human height. intelligence, skin & eye color MORE THAN ONE GENE POLYGENIC TRAIT http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/images/grow.JPG

  8. GENES are more complicated than MENDEL thought MORE than ONE gene Traits determined by ____________ _________ have _____“___________” phenotypes many in-between There aren’t just SMART people and DUMB people…. there is a ________________ of intelligences in-between whole range http://www.newtonswindow.com/problem-solving.htm

  9. GENES are more complicated than MENDEL thought KINDS OF DOMINANCE ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ COMPLETE DOMINANCE INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE CO-DOMINANCE

  10. COMPLETE DOMINANCE Dominant masks recessive __________ allele _______ the ___________ one PATTERN ?____________ allele ________ in a _____ratio in the ____ generation Recessive returns 3:1 F2 http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookTOC.html

  11. INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE DON’T SEE __________ expected _____ ratio in F2 generation _____________ organisms with one dominant and one recessive allele show a _________ in-between trait 3:1 Heterozygous BLENDED Image modified from: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookTOC.html

  12. CO-DOMINANCE BOTH SAME TIME NO BLENDING _______ traits are expressed at ___________ (_____________________) in heterozygote ROAN A ________HORSE has ______________ hair and __________ hair side by side BOTH RED WHITE

  13. CO-DOMINANCE Both traits are expressed together (NO BLENDING) in heterozygote Persons with an A alleleAND a B allele have blood type AB

  14. BLOOD TYPES have more than 2 allele choices= _________________________ MULTIPLE ALLELE TRAIT The pattern of sugars that is attached is determined by genes Allele choices are: _____ ____ ____ A B O

  15. BLOOD TYPES & ALLELES A A B B O AB

  16. BLOOD TYPES O ____ can donate to EVERY BLOOD TYPE = _____________________ Nothing on surface to recognize as “NOT SELF” YOU DON’T HAVE ANYTHING I DON’T HAVE! UNIVERSAL DONOR Body images modified from: http://www.new-fitness.com/images/body_shapes.jpg

  17. BLOOD TYPES AB ______ can RECEIVE FROM EVERY BLOOD TYPE = ________________________ UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT Body image modified from: http://www.new-fitness.com/images/body_shapes.jpg

  18. BLOOD TYPE FREQUENCY IN USA http://www.reachoutmichigan.org/funexperiments/agesubject/lessons/newton/BldTyping.html

  19. MENDEL’S PEA EXPERIMENTS true breeding Mendel started his experiments with peas that were _________________ = if allowed to _________________ they would produce ____________________ to themselves. self pollinate offspring identical http://hus.yksd.com/distanceedcourses/YKSDbiology/lessons/FourthQuarter/Chapter11/11-1/images/MendelExperiment.gif

  20. specific characteristic trait A _____________________ is called a ____________ Mendel ______________ in peas. studied 7 traits Pearson Education Inc,; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

  21. MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS P1 parental ____ generation (_________) ____ generation (______= offspring) ___ generation F1 filial F2

  22. Principles of Dominance Section 11-1 P Generation F1 Generation F2 Generation Tall Short Tall Tall Tall Tall Tall Short

  23. Principles of Dominance Section 11-1 P Generation F1 Generation F2 Generation Tall Short Tall Tall Tall Tall Tall Short

  24. Principles of Dominance Section 11-1 P Generation F1 Generation F2 Generation Tall Short Tall Tall Tall Tall Tall Short

  25. crossed PURE contrasting When Mendel ______________ PLANTS with 2 ______________ traits:(EX: Tall crossed with short) He always found same pattern: 1. ONLY ______ trait ____________ in the ____generation BUT . . . 2. ___________ trait ____________ in the ____ generation in a _________ ratio ONE showed F1 Missing returned F2 3:1

  26. PATTERNS ARE THE KEY Image modified from:http://www.laskerfoundation.org/rprimers/gnn/timeline/1866.html http://www.accessexcellence.org/AB/GG/mendel.html

  27. pair of FACTORS control Mendel decided that there must be a __________________ that ________each trait and that __________ must be able to _______ the other. one factor HIDE

  28. DIHYBRID CROSSES (2 traits) http://mac122.icu.ac.jp/BIOBK/BioBookgenintro.html

  29. Mendel also asked the question? Does the gene that determines if a seed is round or wrinkled have anything to do with the gene for seed shape? Must a seed that is yellow also be round?

  30. MAKING A CROSS with ___________________=____________________ TWO gene traits A Punnett square for a DIHYBRID CROSS looks like this: DIHYBRID CROSS

  31. Figure 11-10 Independent Assortment in Peas Section 11-3

  32. INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT LAW OF __________________________ the factors are distributed to gametes independently of other factors Image modified from: http://anthro.palomar.edu/mendel/mendel_1.htm

  33. LET’S MAKE A DIHYBRID CROSS HOMOZYGOUS GREEN WRINKLED HOMOZYGOUS YELLOW ROUND rryy RRYY 1. ___________ what _________________ are 2. ________correct__________ square __________ 3. ______ possible_______________________ 4. ______ boxes with _____________________ 5. Determine ____________of_____________& ____________ Figure out parent alleles Choose Punnett size Put in parent gametes Fill in offspring combinations probabilities phenotypes genotypes

  34. PRACTICE MAKING GAMETES WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE GAMETES THIS PARENT CAN MAKE? HOMOZYGOUS ROUND YELLOW Each gamete shouldget one of each kindof gene RRYY RY RY RY RY ___________ ____________ _____________ _____________

  35. PRACTICE MAKING GAMETES WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE GAMETES THIS PARENT CAN MAKE? Each gamete shouldget one of each kindof gene HOMOZYGOUS WRINKLED GREEN rryy r y ry ry ry ___________ ____________ _____________ _____________

  36. PRACTICE MAKING GAMETES WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE GAMETES THIS PARENT CAN MAKE? HETEROZYGOUSROUND YELLOW Each gamete shouldget one of each kindof gene RrYy RY ry rY Ry ___________ ____________ _____________ _____________

  37. ry ry ry ry RY RY RY RY RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy RrYy 100% of offspring = _______ genotype _______________________ phenotype ROUND YELLOW

  38. MAKE ANOTHER CROSS HETEROZYGOUSROUND YELLOW HETEROZYGOUSROUND YELLOW X RrYy RrYy

  39. POSSIBLE PARENT GAMETES? RY rY ry Ry

  40. RY Ry rY ry RY Ry rY ry ____ Round & Yellow ____ Round & green ____ Wrinkled & yellow ____ wrinkled & green 9 RRYYRRYyRrYY RrYy RRYy RRyy RrYy RryyRrYY RrYyrrYY rrYy RrYyRryy rrYyrryy 3 3 1 heterozygous dihybrid Sign of a ______________________ cross is a _____________ ratio in offspring. 9:3:3:1

  41. 9 ____ ____________ TRAIT 1 ; ____________ TRAIT 2 ____ ____________ TRAIT 1; _____________ TRAIT 2 ____ ____________ TRAIT 1; _____________ TRAIT 2 ____ ____________ TRAIT 1; _____________ TRAIT 2 dominant dominant 3 dominant recessive 3 recessive dominant 1 recessive recessive __________ratio is a clue that it’s a ____________________________cross 9:3:3:1 HETEROZYGOUS TWO gene

  42. PRACTICE MAKING GAMETESfor DIHYBRID CROSSES http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookTOC.html

  43. What are the possible gametes? pure round & pure tall = __________ ____ ____ _____ ______ What gametes can it produce? R RTT     R T RT RT R T

  44. What are the possible gametes? Heterozygous Tall = __________ & pure round ____ ____ _____ ______ What gametes can it produce? T tRR     T R tR tR T R

  45. What are the possible gametes? Hybrid tall = __________ & pure wrinkled ____ ____ _____ ______ What gametes can it produce? T trr     T r tr tr T r

  46. What are the possible gametes? Heterozygous tall = __________ & hybrid round ____ ____ _____ ______ What gametes can it produce? T tRr     T R tr tR T r