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11-3 Exploring Mendelian Genetics. Page 270. Think about it…. Mendel wondered if alleles sorted independently… ….for example… “…is the gene for green/yellow peas linked to the gene for round/wrinkled peas….. …..like….are green peas always round….or….. … hmmmm …”.

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think about it
Think about it….
  • Mendel wondered if alleles sorted independently…
  • ….for example…
  • “…is the gene for green/yellow peas linked to the gene for round/wrinkled peas…..
  • …..like….are green peas always round….or…..
  • …hmmmm…”
a independent assortment
A. Independent Assortment
  • 1. Mendel performed an experiment, to follow two genes going from one generation to the next, called a two-factor (dihybrid) cross.
a independent assortment1
A. Independent Assortment
  • 2. First, Mendel crossed true-breeding (Homozygous) plants. Two-Factor Cross: F1
  • 3. Genotypes: RRYY and rryy
  • Phenotypes: Round/Yellow & Wrinkled/Green.
a independent assortment2
A. Independent Assortment
  • 4. All the F1 offspring had the genotypeRrYy (heterozygous) and phenotype round/yellow.
a independent assortment3
A. Independent Assortment
  • 5. Two-Factor Cross: F2 Mendel found that some of the offspring looked NOTHING like the parents!!
a independent assortment4
A. Independent Assortment
  • 6. In conclusion ALL of a gamete’s alleles segregate independently; known as independent assortment.
a independent assortment5
A. Independent Assortment
  • 7. Mendel’s results closely matched the expected ratio of 9:3:3:1.

9: Round and Yellow

3: Round and Green

3: Wrinkled and Yellow

1: Wrinkled and Green

slide9

In mice the ability to run normally is a dominant trait. Mice with this trait are called running mice ( R ). The recessive trait causes mice to run in circles. Mice with this trait are called waltzing mice ( r ). Hair color is also an inherited trait in mice. Black hair ( B ) is dominant over brownhair ( b ).

running mice r waltzing mice r black hair b brown hair b
running mice (R), waltzing mice (r), Black hair (B), brownhair (b).
  • 1. Cross a heterozygous running heterozygous black mouse with a homozygous running, homozygous black mouse.
slide11

running mice (R), waltzing mice (r), Black hair (B), brownhair (b).

  • 2. Cross a homozygous running, homozygous black mouse with a heterozygous running, brown mouse.
slide12

running mice (R), waltzing mice (r), Black hair (B), brownhair (b).

  • 3. Cross a homozygous waltzing brown mouse with a homozygous waltzing brown mouse.
slide13

running mice (R), waltzing mice (r), Black hair (B), brownhair (b).

  • 4. Cross a homozygous running, heterozygous black mouse with a homozygous waltzing brown mouse.
slide14

running mice (R), waltzing mice (r), Black hair (B), brownhair (b).

  • 5. Cross a homozygous running, brown mouse with a heterozygous running, homozygous black mouse.
slide15

running mice (R), waltzing mice (r), Black hair (B), brownhair (b).

  • 6. Cross a heterozygous running, heterozygous black mouse with a heterozygous running, heterozygous black mouse.
b a summary of mendel s principles
B. A Summary of Mendel’s Principles
  • 1. Genes are passed from parents to offspring.
  • 2. When there are 2 alleles (form of a gene), 1 is dominant and 1 is recessive.
b a summary of mendel s principles1
B. A Summary of Mendel’s Principles
  • 3. Most organisms have two copies of a gene, one from each parent, that are segregated when gametes are formed (meiosis).
b a summary of mendel s principles2
B. A Summary of Mendel’s Principles
  • 4. Alleles segregate independently from each other (independent assortment).
c beyond dominant and recessive alleles
C. Beyond Dominant and Recessive Alleles
  • 1. Some alleles are neither dominant or recessive, many traits are controlled by multiple genes or alleles.
c beyond dominant and recessive alleles1
C. Beyond Dominant and Recessive Alleles

Ex: Flower color. Red=AA, White= aa, Pink= Aa

  • 2. Incomplete dominance occurs when one allele is not completely dominant over another. (The heterozygous phenotype is between the homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive phenotypes.)
c beyond dominant and recessive alleles2
C. Beyond Dominant and Recessive Alleles
  • 3. Codominance occurs when both alleles contribute to the phenotype.
  • Ex:

Blood

Types

c beyond dominant and recessive alleles3
C. Beyond Dominant and Recessive Alleles
  • 4. Some genes have multiple alleles to create a phenotype.
    • Ex: Fur Color in Rabbits
c beyond dominant and recessive alleles4
C. Beyond Dominant and Recessive Alleles
  • 5. Polygenic Traits are traits controlled by 2 or more genes.
    • Ex: Skin tone is controlled by 4 genes.
c beyond dominant and recessive alleles5
C. Beyond Dominant and Recessive Alleles
  • 6. Sex-Linked Traits express their phenotype based on the sex chromosomes.
    • EX: Colorblindness
matching
Matching
  • 1. Incomplete Dominance
  • 2. Codominance
  • 3. Multiple Alleles
  • 4. Polygenic Traits
  • 5. Sex-Linked Traits
  • A. Colorblindness
  • B. Skin Tone
  • C. Blood Type
  • D. Rabbits Fur
  • E. Flower color