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11.3 Exploring Mendelian Genetics. Independent Assortment. Mendel performed an experiment to follow two different genes as they passed from one generation to the next. The two-factor cross: F1.

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independent assortment
Independent Assortment
  • Mendel performed an experiment to follow two different genes as they passed from one generation to the next.
the two factor cross f1
The two-factor cross: F1
  • First, Mendel crossed true breeding plants that produced only round yellow peas (genotype RRYY) with plants that produced wrinkled green peas (genotype rryy)
  • This cross provides hybrid plants needed for the next cross-the cross of F1 plants to produce the F2 generation.
the 2 factor cross f2
The 2-Factor Cross: F2
  • The principle of independent assortment states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.
  • Independent assortment helps account for the many genetic variations observed in plants, animals, and other organisms.
a summary of mendel s principles
A summary of Mendel’s Principles
  • Genes are units that determine inheritance of traits
  • Some alleles are dominant and some are recessive
  • In sexually reproducing organisms, each adult has 2 copies of each gene-one from each parent
  • alleles from different genes segregate independently
beyond dominant and recessive alleles
Beyond Dominant and recessive alleles
  • Some alleles are neither dominant nor recessive, and many traits are controlled by multiple alleles or multiple genes.
incomplete dominance
Incomplete dominance
  • Cases in which one allele is not completely dominant over another are called incomplete dominance.
codominance
Codominance
  • A similar situation is codominance, in which both alleles contribute to the phenotype.
multiple alleles
Multiple alleles
  • Many genes have more than two alleles and are said to have multiple alleles.
polygenic traits
Polygenic Traits
  • Traits controlled by two or more genes are said to be polygenic traits.
applying mendel s principles
Applying Mendel’s Principles
  • In the early 1900’s, geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan was looking for an animal that was small, easy to keep in the lab, and able to produce many offspring in a short period of time.