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Mendelian Genetics. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884). Discovered the laws of heredity by working with garden peas . Why use pea plants???. Mendel created true breeding plants through self-pollination to produce the PARENTAL generation.

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slide2

Gregor Mendel(1822-1884)

Discovered the laws of heredity by working with garden peas.

why use pea plants
Why use pea plants???
  • Mendel created true breeding plants through self-pollination to produce the PARENTAL generation.
  • Then Mendel used these parent plants to produce the F1 generation.
slide4

Parental Generation (P)  First Filial Generation (F1)

What happened to the short trait?

the same thing happened for several traits
The same thing happened for several traits!

Seed Shape

Seed Color

Seed Coat

Color

Pod

Shape

Pod Color

Flower Position

Plant Height

Round

Yellow

Gray

Smooth

Green

Axial

Tall

Wrinkled

Green

White

Constricted

Yellow

Terminal

Short

Round

Yellow

Gray

Smooth

Green

Axial

Tall

principle of dominance
Principle of Dominance
  • Some alleles are dominant, some are recessive.
  • dominant-allele that is visible and observable
    • represented by a capital letter in the genotype
    • Covers up the recessive allele for a given trait
  • recessive-allele of an organism that is masked by a dominant trait IF the dominant allele is present.
    • Represented by a lower case letter
genetic terminology
Genetic Terminology
  • Genotype - the allele combination an organism contains
  • Each genotype contains 2 alleles – one on each homologous chromosome
  • Phenotype - the physical expression of a trait Ex: tall, short
types of genotypes
Types of Genotypes
  • homozygous-organism with two alleles the same
    • Ex: homozygous dominant (TT) and homozygous recessive (tt)
    • Also called “pure”
  • heterozygous-organism with both a dominant allele and a recessive allele
    • Individuals heterozygous for a given trait are carriers for the recessive allele.
    • Ex: Tt
    • Also called a “hybrid”
the alleles for height in pea plants are tall t and short t which allele s is are dominant
The alleles for height in pea plants are tall (T) and short (t). Which allele(s) is(are) dominant?
  • Tall
  • Short
  • Tall and short
  • Neither tall nor short
the genotype tt will have the phenotype
The genotype tt will have the phenotype
  • Homozygous short
  • Heterozygous short
  • Heterozygous tall
  • Homozygous tall
following the generations
Following the Generations

Results in all Hybrids

Cross 2 Pure Plants

Cross 2 Hybrids Results in 3Tall & 1Short

principle of segregation figure 11 5 page 266
Principle of Segregation(figure 11-5 page 266)
  • Mendel observed that in future generations the recessive traits reappear. Therefore, the alleles must separate at some time.
  • During the formation of gametes (eggs or sperm), the two alleles responsible for a trait separate from each other. Parents randomly pass on one of their alleles for each gene in the egg or sperm.
probability likelihood that an event will occur
Probability-likelihood that an event will occur.
  • used to determine possible allele combos for a given trait

Equation:

Probability= # of one kind of possible outcome

total # of all possible outcomes

  • Examples: tossing a coin =

rolling a die =

sex of child =

monohybrid crosses shows allele combinations that might result from two parents
Monohybrid Crosses – shows allele combinations that might result from two parents
  • Does not represent actual outcome. The more individuals in a sample, the closer you get to the expected ratios shown in a Punnett square.
slide17

In pea plants, tall height is dominant over short height. A heterozygous plant is pollinated by another heterozygous plant. What are the probable phenotypic and genotypic ratios of the plant’s offspring?

Choose a letter to represent the genes in the cross

Write the genotypes of the parents.

slide18

3. Determine the possible gametes that the parent will produce. Remember, alleles will segregate when gametes are formed. Enter the gametes at the top and side of the Punnett square.

slide19

4. Complete the Punnett Square by writing the alleles from the gametes in the appropriate boxes. This step represents fertilization. Letters inside the boxes represent the probable genotypes of the offspring.

let s solve a problem
Let’s Solve A Problem!

Yellow seeds are dominant to green seeds. Determine the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring created from a cross of a plant heterozygous for yellow seeds and a plant with green seeds.

slide22

Yellow seeds are dominant to green seeds. Determine the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring created from a cross of a plant heterozygous for yellow seeds and a plant with green seeds.

principle of independent assortment
Principle of Independent Assortment

Alleles for differenttraits are distributed to sex cells (& offspring) independently of one another.

  • can be illustrated using dihybrid crosses.

Dihybrid Cross - used to determine all possible combinations of alleles for two traits

dihybrid cross
Dihybrid Cross

Traits: Seed shape & Seed color

Alleles:R round r wrinkled Y yellow y green

RrYy x RrYy

All possible gamete combinations

dihybrid cross2
Dihybrid Cross

Round/Yellow: 9Round/green: 3wrinkled/Yellow: 3wrinkled/green: 1

9:3:3:1

Figure 11-9

and 11-10 pages 270-271