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Exploring Mendelian Genetics. Chapter 11 Section 3 SC B-46: Predict inherited traits by using the principles of Mendelian genetics (including segregation, independent assortment, and types of dominance). Essential Question.

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exploring mendelian genetics

Exploring Mendelian Genetics

Chapter 11 Section 3

SC B-46: Predict inherited traits by using the principles of Mendelian genetics (including segregation, independent assortment, and types of dominance)

essential question
Essential Question

How would you explain the inheritance patterns beyond dominant & recessive?

dihybrid crosses
Dihybrid Crosses

Mendel also performed an experiment to follow 2 different genes as they passed from parents to offspring

Mendel chose true-breeding round, yellow peas crossed with true-breeding wrinkled, green for F1

(RRYY) x (rryy)

What genotype/phenotype will the offspring have?

mendel s 2 nd experiment
Mendel’s 2nd Experiment

The Inheritance of 2 Traits

Does the inheritance of 1 characteristic influence the inheritance of another characteristic?

For example: Does pea shape influence pea color?

results
Results:

Mendel’s plants produced 556 seeds

round & yellow: 315

wrinkled & green: 32

combinations of parent phenotypes: 209

Mendel’s conclusion:

Alleles for seed shape & color segregate independently when gametes forming

law of independent assortment
Law of Independent Assortment

Genes from different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.

This accounts for the many genetic variations observed in plants, animals, & other organisms

summary of mendel s principles
Summary of Mendel’s Principles

Inheritance of biological characteristics is determined by individual units called genes. Genes are passed from parents to their offspring.

If there are 2 or more alleles of a gene for a single trait, some forms may be dominant & others recessive

In most sexually reproducing organisms, each individual has 2 copies of a single gene (1 from each parent) & they separate when gametes are formed

Alleles for different genes usually separate independently of one another.

incomplete dominance
Incomplete Dominance

Cases where neither allele is dominant the heterozygous individual will have a phenotype that is a blend of the 2 alleles.

codominance
Codominance

Both alleles for a gene are expressed in the phenotype of a hybrid individual

multiple alleles
Multiple Alleles

genes that have >2 alleles

polygenic traits
Polygenic Traits

Traits controlled by the interactions of several genes

genetics the environment
Genetics & the Environment

Genes provide a plan for development but how that plan unfolds also depends on the environment