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The French & Indian War. What you need to know. Why French settled Quebec Causes of French & Indian War How Treaty of Paris impacted: Britain France Native Americans Proclamation of 1763 How British financial problems hurt colonies. British & French Rivalry.

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what you need to know
What you need to know
  • Why French settled Quebec
  • Causes of French & Indian War
  • How Treaty of Paris impacted:
    • Britain
    • France
    • Native Americans
  • Proclamation of 1763
  • How British financial problems hurt colonies
british french rivalry
British & French Rivalry
  • 1700s—Britain and France struggled to be world’s strongest empire
  • Each had colonies all over the world
  • One place they fought over was Ohio River Valley
french colonies in america
French Colonies in America
  • 1608—French set up Quebec colony
    • 1 year after Jamestown
    • Became very wealthy from fur trading
  • In 1600s—French ended up claiming all of Mississippi River valley
    • Named it Louisiana (for King Louis XIV)
french colonies in america1
French Colonies in America
  • New France was very different from British colonies
    • Fur trappers & traders
    • Priests to convert natives
    • Friendly with local native tribes
    • Didn’t build big cities – big difference in population (F – 70,000 vs. B – 1,000,000)
british french rivalry1
British & French Rivalry
  • Both Brits & French expanded toward each other’s territory
  • They both wanted fur trading rights
the 1 st battle 1754
The 1st battle – 1754
  • French built Ft. Duquesne (modern Pittsburgh) on land VA had claimed
  • VA sent troops to defend land claims led by 22 y/o Col. George Washington
the 1 st battle 17541
The 1st battle – 1754
  • Washington built Ft. Necessity 40 miles from Ft. Duquesne
  • Attacked the French
  • They fought, French won
the 2 nd battle 1755
The 2nd battle – 1755
  • 1 yr later British Gen Ed Braddock’s troops attacked Ft. Duquesne
  • French & their Native allies ambushed them, British ran away
french and natives
French and Natives
  • Many native tribes helped French
    • Added big numbers to French army
    • Knew land better
    • Taught guerrilla warfare (nobody fought that way in Europe)
  • French win battles for 2 years
british colonies react
British colonies react
  • British colonists question strength of British army
  • New Brit Prime Minister – William Pitt
    • Enough is enough – began to win battles
    • Some native tribes began helping Brits
    • 1759—Brits take Quebec—basically ends war
treaty of paris 1763
Treaty of Paris 1763
  • Brits get all land E of Mississippi R
  • French get land W of Mississippi R
    • And some Caribbean islands
  • Natives biggest losers in war
    • Easier for them when French were there
native revolts
Native revolts
  • Chief Pontiac led battle against British forts – took over 8 forts
  • British asked for negotiation
  • As peace offering, British gave natives blankets w/smallpox on them
  • Disease wiped out, British finished off
proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of 1763
  • Attempt to avoid battles with natives
  • British banned settlement W of Appalachians
  • Colonists wanted the land—they ignored the rule
colonial resentment
Colonial resentment
  • Colonists hated Proclamation
    • British fighting colonial expansion – colonists felt theBritish did not care about them?
  • British cracked down on smuggling
    • Searched homes, businesses & ships
british financial issues
British financial issues
  • British send 10,000 troops to America
    • Defend against natives & former French
  • Colonists were scared that army would actually suppress them
  • British were increasing spending on military – financial problems
sugar act
Sugar Act
  • Cut tax on sugar
    • Hoping colonists will buy legal sugar from British colonies
  • Increase penalties for smuggling
    • Criminals tried in British courts instead of colonial courts
  • Colonists hated rule placed on them from outside
what you need to know1
What you need to know
  • Why French settled Quebec
  • Causes of French & Indian War
  • How Treaty of Paris impacted:
    • Britain
    • France
    • Native Americans
  • Proclamation of 1763
  • How British financial problems hurt colonies
what you need to know2
What you need to know
  • Stamp Act
  • Colonial responses to Stamp Act
    • Stamp Act Congress
    • Sons of Liberty
    • 1st Continental Congress
  • Boston Massacre
  • Committees of Correspondence
  • Boston Tea Party
  • Intolerable Acts
  • 1stContinental Congress
  • Lexington and Concord
britain s financial problems
Britain’s financial problems
  • Arrangement British always had with the colonies:
    • Colonies send raw goods to Britain, creating a profit
    • British army & navy protect colonies
    • Colonies pay taxes to colony only
    • No taxes paid to London
britain s financial problems1
Britain’s financial problems
  • After F&I War, Britain was in debt
  • War cut into British profits
    • Costs lots of money for war supplies
    • War shuts down farms & industry
britain s financial problems2
Britain’s financial problems
  • Britain decided to change its arrangement with the colonies
  • Need to set up new taxes to pay debt
the stamp act
The Stamp Act
  • Required a stamp on all paper documents
    • Legal documents (contracts, licenses, etc)
    • Newspapers & magazines
    • Dice & playing cards
  • Affected all colonists—rich & poor
the colonists react
The colonists react
  • Colonists become angry because:
    • British citizens elect reps to Parliament
    • Parliament establishes taxes with people’s consent
    • Colonies didn’t get reps in Parliament
    • They shouldn’t have to pay taxes unless they get to elect reps too
the colonists react1
The colonists react
  • Massachusetts
    • Sons of Liberty
      • Secret org of Boston men led by Samuel Adams (rich & poor)
      • Harassed anyone who collected tax money or enforced the tax
      • Caused many people who were tired of harassment to resign
the colonists react2
The colonists react
  • Virginia
    • House of Burgesses
      • Led by Patrick Henry
      • Colonial legislature voted that only Virginia colony could tax Virginians
      • (basically just a symbolic vote—not as if British Parliament really cared)
stamp act congress
Stamp Act Congress
  • Reps from 9 colonies met in NYC
  • Sent Parliament the Declaration of Rights & Grievances
    • “no taxation w/o representation”
  • Very significant; firsttime colonies really worked together as a unit
regular colonists react
Regular colonists react
  • Colonial merchants refused to import British goods
  • Regular colonists boycotted anything British
  • Began to see selves as citizens of the colony more than of Britain
townshend acts
Townshend Acts
  • Taxes sponsored by British politician Charles Townshend
  • Taxes on specific goods that were imported from Britain
    • Glass / Lead / Paint / Paper / TEA
townshend acts response
Townshend Acts response
  • Most colonists participate in boycott
  • Samuel Adams led revolts
  • Women participated in boycott:
    • Wove cloth instead of buying it
    • Made tea from bark (?)
the liberty
The Liberty
  • Ship owned by John Hancock
  • British looking for imported (smuggled) wine seized ship
  • Angered citizens of Boston—riots
  • British used soldiers to clamp down on Boston
boston massacre 1770
Boston Massacre—1770
  • British soldiers patrolled streets
  • Colonists not used to being watched
  • Soldiers allowed to get jobs on the side for extra money
  • Employers scared to say no to them
  • Cost regular people jobs
boston massacre 17701
Boston Massacre—1770
  • Fight began over soldiers taking jobs away from colonists
  • Colonists taunted soldiers
  • Soldiers fired into crowd, killed 5
  • Sam Adams & others publicized event
crispus attucks
Crispus Attucks
  • First person to die in Massacre
  • Worked on the docks in Boston
  • Was in crowd taunting soldiers
  • Thought to be ½ African ½ Native
  • Not much known about him at all
committees of correspondence
Committees of Correspondence
  • British ship hunting smugglers attacked by colonists from RI
  • Colonists burn up the ship
  • Suspects taken to London for trial
committees of correspondence1
Committees of Correspondence
  • Colonists angry suspects taken back to London for trial
  • Groups set up (C of C) to communicate among all the colonies about British oppression
tea act
Tea Act
  • Boycotts on tea caused sales to drop
  • Tons of tea sitting in warehouses
  • Tea had always been sold to importers in colonies in bulk amts
    • Colonial importers would sell smaller amts for a profit
tea act1
Tea Act
  • Parliament allowed British East India Co. rights to sell tea directly to consumers
    • Cut out middleman—cheaper product
    • Would cost jobs
  • Colonists reacted violently
boston tea party 1773
Boston Tea Party—1773
  • Bostonians dressed as natives
  • Boarded 3 BEI Co. ships in Boston harbor, dumped 18,000 lbs of tea
coercive intolerable acts
Coercive/Intolerable Acts
  • Parliament punished colonists
    • Closed down Boston harbor
    • Quartering Act—soldiers can stay in peoples’ homes w/o their permission
    • Massachusetts under martial law
  • British called laws Coercive Acts
  • Colonies called them Intolerable Acts
first continental congress
First Continental Congress
  • Delegates from 12 colonies (not GA)
  • Wrote declaration of colonial rights
  • Decided they would defend each other if one colony was attacked
war approaches
War approaches
  • Colonies began to gear up for war
  • Militias formed in many small towns
  • Began to stockpile weapons
lexington concord 1775
Lexington & Concord—1775
  • British Gen. Gage learned about minuteman activity
  • Sent soldiers to Lexington to seize and destroy munitions there
  • Also looking for Sam Adams and John Hancock to arrest
lexington concord 17751
Lexington & Concord—1775
  • 700 British troops marched toward towns of Lexington & Concord
  • Paul Revere warned minutemen of upcoming attack
lexington concord 17752
Lexington & Concord—1775
  • Lexington
    • 70 minutemen met British, refused to lay down arms
    • British fired, 8 colonists died
lexington concord 17753
Lexington & Concord—1775
  • Concord
    • British found empty arsenal
    • They started to walk back to Boston, got ambushed by militia
what you need to know3
What you need to know
  • Stamp Act
  • Colonial responses to Stamp Act
    • Stamp Act Congress
    • Sons of Liberty
    • 1st Continental Congress
  • Boston Massacre
  • Committees of Correspondence
  • Boston Tea Party
  • Intolerable Acts
  • 1st Continental Congress
  • Lexington and Concord