CH 3 section 1French Revolution differed from American Revolution because: • it tried to create not only a new political system, but a social one also • more violent (both within France and among foreign foes of the revolution • was a civil war fighting against its own oppression and injustice
Three Estates (i.e., three classes of people, i.e. the Old Regime.) • First = clergy (.5% of population, owned 10% of best land, paid NO taxes)
Second = wealthy nobles (1.5% of pop., owned 25% of best land, paid NO taxes)
Third = everyone else! (98% pop., 65% “left-over “land, paid ALL of taxes) • landless peasants who owed duties to nobles. • Urban workers struggled financially (inflation) • Bourgeoisie (middle class to wealthy professionals, unhappy w. privileges of first two estates and were drawn to the ideas of the Enlightenment.)
Which Estate were nobles? • Who from the third estate had the most power?
Immediate cause of revolution • near collapse of Fr. economy due to: expensive wars (incl. the Am. Rev.)-- • wasteful expenditures (Palace of Versailles), • widespread poverty, unemployment & bad harvests. Louis XVI called a mtg. of representatives (deputies) of Estates-General (1st time in 175 yrs!) to raise taxes. • Advisor Jacques Necker ask to tax all estates(he was fired
1789 Estate General& • Each estate had only one vote. 1st & 2nd held the majority! This system favored by king. • 3rd estate protested. Declared itself the National Assembly and began to draft a national constitution. • Louis locked out the assembly, so they went next door and made the Tennis Court Oath.
Fall of the Bastille (royal armory & prison), • July 14, 1789 (French national holiday.) • Hated symbol of oppression attacked by 8,000 Parisians. Defended by only 114. • Officer in charge surrendered, was be-headed and head paraded on pike through streets.
Great Fear • (vast panic & violence throughout countryside, fear that Royalist forces within and without
Parisian women marched on Versailles • killed guards, broke into king’s chambers & forced him to accept the decrees of National Assembly, told king their children were starving. • They also demanded that king leave his palace & return with them to Paris (feared he would rouse support from foreign monarchs.) He brought goodwill gesture of flour supplies as he & family escorted.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen 1789 • National Assembly abolished all privileges of first two estates & adopted the • (based upon Eng. and Am. Bill of Rights and Dec. of Indep.) • All equal before law, had to pay taxes, had natural rights.
Olympe de Gouges • opposed exclusion of females. National Assembly ignored her. Eventually be-headed!
Revolutionaries take & sold church lands • To raise money • church came under government control (clergy to be elected by citizens & salaries paid by govt.) Upset many Catholics.
New Constitution of 1791 • stated that assembly was to make laws. But was conservative by keeping monarch (although limited in powers) and only wealthy from ANY estate could vote.
Royal family attempts to flee • was captured. This made the new assembly more radical. • Legislative (National) Assembly declared war on Austria (homeland of despised Queen Marie Antoinette!) • Fear Austria will attack to free the Royal Family
Sans-culottes • = ordinary patriots without fine clothes (eg. knee-length pants worn by aristocracy.) • Revolutionary artists such as David, depicted the strength of average citizens (see p. 218)
The French Revolution Spreads in to Europe • After early defeats in war and food shortage, radicals declared themselves the Paris Commune, seized power from Assembly & arrested king. • All male citizens now able to vote, but also became violent.
CH 3 sections 2Radical Rise and Fall • The Paris Commune had forced the Assembly to set up a National Convention to draft a new constitution, abolish the monarchy & establish the French Republic.
Jean-Paul Marat • radical journalist of “Friend of the People” was an intense and popular revolutionary leader of the Jacobins (organ. of national political clubs.) Assassinated by female political rival.
The Jacobins of the Convention split into factions: The Girondins: The Mountain: • from outside of Paris, favored keeping king alive. • radical Parisians who wanted to execute king • (prevent king from becoming an inspiration for the Royalists.) • The Mountain convinced the Convention to condemn Louis XVI. • The Mountain convinced the Convention to condemn Louis XVI.
King is Beheaded • “I die innocent of all the crimes laid to my charge; I pardon those who had occasioned my death; and I pray to God that the blood you are going to shed may never be visited on France.” Louis XVI, Jan, 1793.
Kings execution created enemies: • Domestic: Paris was radical, but much of the rest of France resisted rule of Convention • Foreign: European monarchs outraged. Coalition of countries ready to invade.
“Committee of Public Safety”-Created to calm situation • led by Maximilien Robespierre. • radical revolutionary leader who preached democracy and universal male suffrage, • very honest and obsessed with creating a “Republic of Virtue.” • he also believed that those who opposed the general will of the republic (as he interpreted it) must be executed.
“Reign of Terror.” Created by Robespierre and Committee of public safety • Revolutionary courts executed 40,000 (including Queen Marie Antionette.)
Brutality of Reign of Terror • City of Lyon made an example of warning (1,880 executed by guillotine and cannon grapeshot) • City of Nantes, victims chained to barge, then sunk in the Loire River!
Robespierre Opinion of Violence • bloodshed was to be only “temporary”, until crises were over & “Republic of Virtue” becomes a reality: “Citizen & Citizeness,” primary education for all, abolished slavery in colonies, price controls, female activists, de-Christianization, “temples of reason, Republic calendar. • Arrests and kills his rivals
French Nationalism • Nationalism Pride and unity in your country • To save the republic from foreign enemies, universal mobilization was decreed. • French revolutionary army helped create modern “nationalism” = largest army in European history, made up of regular citizens (not smaller forcers of paid professional soldiers or mercenaries.)
The Terror Ends • Robespierre was obsessed with ridding France of all enemies (real or perceived) = he himself became one of the Terror’s last victims. Jacobins lost power and “moderate” leaders took over. • The Terror ended, some of most extreme characteristics of the revolution ended (eg. churches re-opened.)
Constitution of 1795 • set up a legislative branch of two houses, designed to keep any one political party from gaining too much control. Members were chosen by electors(qualified voters who must own • property.) The Republic became more conservative and less democratic. • Executive branch led by a committee of five leaders known as the Directory, to prevent too much power in hands of one person or party (but Directory was plagued by corruption.)
Problems for the New Gov • domestic political enemies, economic problems and ongoing expensive foreign wars. • Directory relied upon support from the military to stay in control.
1799 General Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup d’etat. • New Leader Emerges
2 View Points • Edmund Burke = people should be cautious about breaking the social contract w. the “state” because it had been created by many previous generations & would impact future generations. • Thomas Paine = every generation should be free to break contract w. any gov’t. that is tyrannical.
Youth of France • School of Mars’ goal of training young people to become fanatic patriots in just a few weeks failed. • “Golden Youth” were gangs of young men opposed to the Reign of Terror. • Julian was imprisoned, disillusioned by failures of the revolution, but would have his faith restored by the talented & charismatic Napoleon.
CH 3 Section 3 Rise and Fall of Napoleon • -Napoleon Bonaparte = refers to himself as “savior” “genius” “great” (egomaniac!)
Napoleons Changes • preserved & strengthened some goals of French Revolution, • his rule also brought revolution to an end. • France would no longer be ruled by an assembly, but by a military dictator.
Napoleons Brief Bio • He was Corsican (Italian accent), went to military school, became lieutenant, but not popular w. officers. • Devoted himself to his studies: the Enlightenment & military campaigns. • Rose in ranks quickly to become a general at age 24 by Committee of Public Safety. • Won a series of battles using; speed, surprise and decisive action. • Napoleon’s energy, initiative, intelligence, ease w. words & self confidence, made him a hero to his troops.
Napoleon fails in Egypt • Egyptian campaign against British naval forces was a military failure.
Napoleon Takes Power • He returned to Paris to lead a coup to overthrow the Directory & establish a consulate. • New govt. still a republic in theory, but dictatorship in reality as • Napoleon became “first consul,” “consul for life” & “emperor” (crowned himself!)
His Deal with the Church • Deal wtih the pope: Catholicism would be respected as the major religion. • In return the church would not demand church lands be returned. • With this agreement, church was no longer an enemy of the revolution and people who had acquired church lands would strongly support Napoleon.