French Revolution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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French Revolution

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  1. Chris Anderson Randolph-Henry High School French Revolution

  2. Introduction • France will reach its height during the same time as the American Revolution • French leaders were very rich • Most of the people of France were not rich--instead, the people had very few rights • the people of France saw how the American colonists were able to gain their independence and yearned for a change in France

  3. French Society Divided • There were 3 estates (classes) in French society • First Estate—Catholic Clergy • 1% of the population • Second Estate—Nobility • 2% of the population • Served in government positions • Third Estate—97% of the French People • Only estate to pay taxes • Included very poor people • Also included a wealthy, educated middle class (bourgeoisie)

  4. Growing Unrest • The 3rd estate was unhappy and wanted change • The bourgeoisie wanted more equality • The nobles were upset at the king’s power • Wanted to end absolute monarchy • Louis XIV (14) had spent most of France’s $ before he died • Louis XV (15) increased France’s debt

  5. 1774: Louis XVI (16) took the throne at the age of 19 • Louis XVI was married to 18-year old Marie Antoinette • Louis attempted to fix the $ troubles by taxing the clergy and nobility • Problem: clergy and nobility REFUSED to pay • 1786: French banks REFUSED to loan $ to the government

  6. Louis XV (15) Louis XVI (16)

  7. Marie Antoinette

  8. Calling the Estates-General • Louis XVI had to call the Estates-General into session to get $—first time since 1614 • Made of representatives from each estate • Louis wanted the Estates to levy new taxes • Each estate had only 1 vote • The 3rd estate believed its vote should count more since they made up 97% of the people • Wanted individual votes—each delegate having one vote instead of each estate having only 1 vote • Louis did not like the 3rd estate’s idea • Louis kicked the 3rd estate out of the meetings

  9. Meeting of the Estates General

  10. Formation of the National Assembly • The bourgeoisie of the 3rd estate starting meeting on their own • Called themselves the National Assembly • Starting gaining lots of support • Promised to draft a constitution for France

  11. Louis ordered the 1st and 2nd estates to join the National Assembly • They met on tennis courts • To be a member, had to take the Tennis Court Oath

  12. People were voicing their unhappiness in the National Assembly • 3rd estate wanted equality • Louis was afraid and brought troops to Versailles for protection • French people reacted to the troop movement by attacking the Bastille—French Prison

  13. Fall of the Bastille • The French people saw the Bastille as a symbol of the power and unfairness of the French government • July 14, 1789: French citizens stormed the prison to get weapons to defend the National Assembly from a possible attack • Nearly 100 citizens were killed

  14. News of the attack spread quickly in France • Peasants began arming themselves in the countryside • The peasants began attacking the nobles in the country—GreatFear • Stealing the nobles’ homes • Killing the nobles

  15. The nobles in the National Assembly were refusing to give up their privileges to the 3rd estate • The peasant uprisings in the countryside convinced the nobles they could not stop the 3rd estate reforms • August 4, 1789:nobles give up their privileges • The same day, the N. A. starts passing massive reforms • Elimination of feudal dues • Elimination of tithes • Nobles agree to be taxed • Any male citizen could hold public office

  16. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen • Drafted in late August 1789 • Inspired by the Decl. of Independence and U. S. Constitution • Stated: • All people are equal in the eyes of the law • Freedom of speech, press, and religion • Protection from unlawful arrest and punishment • **Who was excluded from the Declaration?**

  17. Louis XVI refused to accept the Declaration (Who had real power?) • Citizens feared Louis would attack the N. A. • Citizens wanted Louis to move from Versailles to Paris • Oct. 1789: a mob of “women” stormed the palace at Versailles • Guards were overrun • Louis agrees to move to Paris

  18. The N. A. also moved to Paris when Louis moved • The N. A. needed money to run France • N. A. seized Cath. Church lands • Resell the lands to get $ • A way to take power away from the Church • 1790: N. A. passed the Civil Constitution of the Clergy • Required the clergy to take an oath to the N. A. • Church split in France

  19. Constitution of 1791 • 1791: a Constitution was drafted • Monarch stayed with limited power • Unicameral (one house) legislature • Elected by males who paid taxes • Not popular with most people

  20. The End of Louis XVI • Louis saw much of the violence of the revolution • June 1791: Louis and his family dressed as commoners and tried to flee to Austria (ruled by Marie’s bro.) • Royal family was recognized • Louis was arrested and placed under house arrest in Paris • Louis forced to accept a limited monarchy • Many in France did not trust Louis • People called for a republic

  21. The revolt against Louis spread in Europe • Austria and other nations worried revolution would spread to them • Austria tells France to re-instate Louis • 1792: N. A. declared war on Austria • Austria gets help from other European nations—especially Prussia • War with Austria=not good for France

  22. Angry citizens attack Louis at his palace • Louis fled to the N. A. for help • N. A. refused to help • N. A. stripped away ALL of Louis’ power—he was no longer king • N. A. set out to create a Republic in France

  23. War with Austria and Prussia was not good for France • Prussia had taken the French fort at Verdun • Allowed a direct route to Paris • George Jacques Danton issued a cry for help to the French people • Thousands answer the cry • 1 week later, France won a major victory, and French morale was boosted

  24. Georges Jacques Danton

  25. As war raged, the N. A. was trying to form a Republic between 1792 and 1795 • The National Assembly will change its name to the National Convention • The N. C. wrote France’s 1st democratic constitution • Unicameral legislature • ALL men could vote • Metric system adopted • A new calendar adopted • September 22, 1792 was considered the starting date of the French Republic

  26. Death of a King • A box of secret letters between Louis XVI and foreign monarchs was found by the N. C. • Dec. 1792: Louis was placed on trial • He was killed by the guillotine • The people were happy to see their king die

  27. Execution of Louis XVI

  28. French Political Parties • Three political parties will develop when the members of the N. C. start to argue with each other over the future of the French Republic • Mountains • Girondists • Plain

  29. Mountains • Radicals • Rich Paris Citizens • Extreme Radicals (Jacobians) • Saw themselves as the defenders of the people • Leaders: • Maximillien Robespierre • Georges-Jacques Danton • Jean-Paul Marat

  30. Robspierre Jean-Paul Marat

  31. Girondists • Moderates • Most were from the Southwest of France • Felt the Revolution had gone far enough • Wanted to protect the rich middle-class from radical attacks

  32. Plain • Sat between the Mountains and Girondists • Consisted of members who did not want to choose sides • the Plain made up the majority in the Convention • 1793: they will give support to the Mountains • the Plain will help the Mountains become even more radical, open to extreme, and violent change

  33. Spreading the Revolution • Europe was watching France and was worried • European monarchs were worried that revolution would spread to them • Jan. 1793: Great Britain, Spain, Netherlands, and Sardinia joined with Austria and Prussia against France • N. C. in France wanted to end royal power everywhere in Europe • N. C. ordered French troops into to Europe to free Europe from royal power

  34. France did not fair well trying to end monarchies in Europe • France will surrender in their fight to spread revolution • N. C. worried that other nations may try to invade France • N. C. created the Committee of Public Safety

  35. Committee of Public Safety • Saw need for more French troops • Instituted conscription (draft) • All men between 18 and 45 were called into the military • Citizens were to manufacture goods for the war effort

  36. the Mountain party will win control over the National Convention • They will arrest the Girondist members who did not agree with the Mountain’s policies and ideas • members supporting the Girondists will rebel against the Mountains • one Girondist supporter--Charlotte Corday--killed a Mountain leader (Marat) • shortly after, Charlotte was executed by the guillotine • other Girondist supporters would also be executed for not following the Mountains

  37. The Death of Marat by J. L. David

  38. Charlotte Corday

  39. Reign of Terror • The Mountains (led by the Jacobins) set out to crush all of their opposition—Reign of Terror • Lasted 1 year (July 1793-July 1794) • Suspects received quick, unfair trials • Many innocents were wrongfully accused • Marie Antoinette will die from the Reign of Terror • 17,000 will be executed by the guillotine

  40. Spring 1794: Danton (leader of the Jacobins) decided to end the Reign of Terror • A fellow party member (Robespierre) disagreed • Robespierre had Danton killed • The terror lasted 4 more months • Robespierre’s followers arrested and had Robespierre killed

  41. The Directory • 1795: A new constitution was drafted • Only men who owned land could vote • Control given to the wealthy middle class • A council of 5 men called directors was created • The council would share power with a 2-house legislature

  42. Directory=not popular • Forced to put down many uprisings • On verge of bankruptcy • The people began to look to the military to lead France instead of the Directory

  43. French Revolution Video--Lady Gaga

  44. Napoleon • One military leader was becoming very popular—Napoleon • Rose quickly to the rank of general • 1795: helped the Directory put down an uprising • 1796: married Josephine de Beauharnais

  45. Napoleon

  46. Josephine de Beauharnais

  47. Led the French army to victory over the Austrians in Italy • Became the leading general in France after defeating Austria • Fought the British in Egypt • 1799: Comes back to France • Participates in a coup de’etat and takes power from the Directory • He will then set out to create an empire