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Focusing on teacher quality in Pakistan: urgency for reform (draws from various recent pieces of work). Monazza Aslam Senior Research Associate ASER Pakistan. Introduction.
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Senior Research Associate ASER Pakistan
Pakistan is reported as a country with shortage of female teachersSource: UNESCO 2005, cited as Table 1 in ‘Managing Teachers: The Centrality of Teacher Management to Quality Education. Lessons from Developing Countries’, (CfBT, 2008).
Pakistan Pupil Teacher Ratios from all public schools in 2008-2009Poor Teacher Deployment: Striking intra-country differences – KP vs Punjab(Source: Academy of Educational Planning and Management)
Note 1: 2008 UIS Data
Note 2: Authors’ calculations from Statistics on School Education 2007-08
Note 3: Authors’ calculations from Pakistan Education Statistics 2008-09
Note 4: 2007 UIS data
*Average for all levels.
ource: Academy of Educational Planning and Management; Figures for 2008-2009.
Note: This includes schools at all levels from primary to higher secondary. It also includes teachers at mosque schools. PTC is Primary Teaching Certificate; CT is Certificate of Training; B.Ed. is Bachelors in Education; M.Ed. is Masters in Education.
Unknown to the teachers and students, some of the questions in the mathematics and language tests were common for the two groups. Additional background information was also collected on issues such as teacher experience, education, affiliation etc. as well as information on political economy issues (such as union membership) and measures of teacher effort (time on task, absence etc.).
Rich information has been gathered on more than 1500 students and more than 300 teachers across the 120 schools in Punjab.
B. Compare teacher salaries to salaries of (comparable) persons in non teaching jobs;
Source: * Pakistan Statistical Yearbook (2007), Government of Pakistan, Statistics Division, Federal Bureau of Statistics; x Pakistan Statistical Yearbook (2007); + We identified teachers using the occupation codes in Pakistan Labour Force Survey (2008). The reported salaries are for all teachers in government and private school jobs teaching at all levels. ** Column (f) shows column (d) figures inflated to 2008 prices using the Wholesale Price Index for Pakistan reported in Pakistan Statistical Yearbook (2007).
However, Kingdon (2010) argues that salary increases unrelated to performance are not necessarily efficiency enhancing. This is true in a system where salaries are linked to a national pay scale as is the case for teachers as well as the bureaucracy and military etc. in Pakistan. Even more importantly, Aslam and Kingdon (2012) also show that teacher salaries in Lahore are not related to higher student learning suggesting that simply raising teachers’ salaries will not necessarily lead to an improvement in student achievement.
This paper delves into the black-box representing ‘teaching’ to uncover the teacher characteristics and teaching practices that matter most to pupil achievement. T